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Data set(s): RLL + Work File
Period: 1536 - 2017
Record number: 32619

  • Bielczyk, U./ R. Koscielniak 2009: Lichenologiczne walory Karpat [Lichenological value of the Carpathians].. - Roczniki Bieszczadzkie 17: 59-78. [RLL List # 234 / Rec.# 35225]
    Abstract: [In Polish with English abstract.]
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  • Biazrov L. G. 2010: Epiphytic lichens of the Northern district of Moscow city (in border of Moscow ringway). - Bjulleten' Moskovskogo Obscestva Ispytatelej Prirody. Otdel Biologiceskij 115(5): 83-85. [RLL List # 234 / Rec.# 35245]
    Notes: In Russian.
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  • Stewart, G. H./ M .Ignatieva/ C. D. Meurk 2010: Multivariate approaches to the study of urban biodiversity and vegetation: An example from a southern temperate colonial city, Christchurch, New Zealand. - In: : Urban Biodiversity and Design. , pp. 291-308. [RLL List # 233 / Rec.# 35100]
    Keywords: Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA)/ Christchurch urban lawns field sampling/ Christchurch wall vegetation, bryophytes and lichens and abundance/ Investigating species richness patterns, in Christchurch forest patches/ NZRCUE/ NZRCUE and urban vegetation sampling/ Sustainable urban design/ Thellungian paradigm/ Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN)/ Urban biodiversity and vegetation study
    Abstract: A prerequisite for more sustainable urban design is an understanding of the current composition of urban plant communities and what 'drives' their compositional variation. Various approaches have been used in the past to describe urban plant community patterns, including phytosociological approaches in Europe and more quantitative urban-rural gradient approaches in the United States. We used multivariate statistical methods to describe compositional variation and causation in urban biotopes of Christchurch city,New Zealand. From stratified random biotopes, we collected compositional, environmental and 'social' data at a range of spatial scales. Our data analysis 'tool box' included TWo-way INdicator SPecies ANalysis (TWINSPAN), descriptive statistics, Principal Components Analysis (PCA), Principal Co-ordinates Analysis (PCoA), ordination (Detrended DCA and Canonical Correspondence Analysis CCA) and regression. In this chapter, we provide examples of our approach and how our findings can be applied to sustainable urban design and restoration. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781444318654.ch15
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  • Association française de Lichénologie 2011: Les lichens: un enjeu pour la biodiversité du Finistère [Lichens: a challenge for biodiversity in Finistère]. - Quimper : Conseil Geìneìral du FinisteÌre. pp. [RLL List # 233 / Rec.# 35052]
    Notes: In French.
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  • Boch, S./ D. Prati/ S. Werth/ J. Rüetschi/ M. Fischer 2011: Lichen endozoochory by snails. - PLoS ONE 6(4): e18770. [RLL List # 234 / Rec.# 35239]
    – doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0018770

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  • Koœcielniak, R. 2011: New and rare lichen species in the Bieszczady National Park and its environs - Part XI. - Roczniki Bieszczadzkie 19: 161-164. [RLL List # 234 / Rec.# 35262]
    Notes: In Polish with English abstract.
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  • Osyczka, P./ K. Skuba³a 2011: Chemical races of Cladonia cariosa and C. symphycarpa (lichenized Ascomycota) - a Polish case study in a worldwide context . - Nova Hedwigia 93(3-4): 363-373. [RLL List # 234 / Rec.# 35213]
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  • Osyczka, P. 2011: The genus Cladonia, group Cocciferae, in Poland. - Herzogia 24(2):: 231-249. [RLL List # 234 / Rec.# 35212]
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  • Ryan, K. S. 2011: Biosynthetic gene cluster for the cladoniamides, bis-indoles with a rearranged scaffold. - PLoS ONE 6(8): . [RLL List # 233 / Rec.# 35084]
    Keywords: alkaloid/ alpha beta hydrolase/ carbazole derivative/ cladoniamide/ hydrolase/ indolocarbazole/ methyltransferase/ molecular scaffold/ oxygenase/ quercetin/ tryptophan/ unclassified drug/ bacterial protein/ carboline derivative/ indole derivative/ rebeccamycin/ tryptoline/ article/ bioaccumulation/ biosynthesis/ controlled study/ dimerization/ enzyme structure/ enzyme substrate complex/ gene cluster/ gene rearrangement/ genetic organization/ genetic similarity/ molecular interaction/ nucleotide sequence/ sequence homology/ bacterial gene/ biosynthesis/ chemistry/ enzymology/ genetics/ metabolism/ molecular genetics/ multigene family/ Streptomyces/ Streptomyces/ Alkaloids/ Bacterial Proteins/ Biosynthetic Pathways/ Carbazoles/ Carbolines/ Genes, Bacterial/ Indoles/ Molecular Sequence Data/ Multigene Family/ Streptomyces
    Abstract: The cladoniamides are bis-indole alkaloids isolated from Streptomyces uncialis, a lichen-associated actinomycete strain. The cladoniamides have an unusual, indenotryptoline structure rarely observed among bis-indole alkaloids. I report here the isolation, sequencing, and annotation of the cladoniamide biosynthetic gene cluster and compare it to the recently published gene cluster for BE-54017, a closely related indenotryptoline natural product. The cladoniamide gene cluster differs from the BE-54017 gene cluster in gene organization and in the absence of one N-methyltransferase gene but otherwise contains close homologs to all genes in the BE-54017 cluster. Both gene clusters encode enzymes needed for the construction of an indolocarbazole core, as well as flavin-dependent enzymes putatively involved in generating the indenotryptoline scaffold from an indolocarbazole. These two bis-indolic gene clusters exemplify the diversity of biosynthetic routes that begin from the oxidative dimerization of two molecules of L-tryptophan, highlight enzymes for further study, and provide new opportunities for combinatorial engineering. © 2011 Katherine S. Ryan.
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023694
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  • Valadbeigi, T./ W. von Brackel 2011: Two new species of Lichenostigma (Lichenotheliaceae, lichenicolous fungi) from Iran. - Willdenowia 41: 191-195. [RLL List # 233 / Rec.# 35048]
    Notes: New species: Lichenostigma iranicum Brackel & Valadbeigi and Lichenostigma verrucosum Brackel & Valadbeigi.
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  • Adams, M. D./ C. Gottardo 2012: Measuring lichen specimen characteristics to reduce relative local uncertainties for trace element biomonitoring. - Atmospheric Pollution Research 3(3): 325-330. [RLL List # 232 / Rec.# 35012]
    Keywords: ICP/ Lichen biomonitoring/ Local variation/ Trace element pollution/ Usnea subfloridana
    Abstract: Local variation (within sampling sites) affects lichen air pollution biomonitoring of trace element deposition patterns. When comparing between sampling sites, global variation must be greater than local variation, thus reducing local variation is important in biomonitoring studies. To reduce local variability, sampling protocols are introduced, primarily minimum sampling height and less often sampling aspect. This study, introduces further protocols, which can help to reduce within site variation. First, the research design removed spatial variation by sampling a single tree. One-thousand and thirty-seven individual specimens of Usnea subfloridana were collected and aggregated into 97 samples based on similar collection height, aspect and mass. Samples were tested by inductively coupled plasma
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.5094/APR.2012.036
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  • Biazrov L. G. 2012: Stable nitrogen isotopes ((ä15N) in the thalli of arid vagrant lichen Xanthoparmelia camtschadalis across altitudinal gradient in Khangai plateau, Mongolia. - Siberian ecological zhurnal 2012(2): 267-276. [RLL List # 234 / Rec.# 35246]
    Abstract: In Russian.
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  • Biazrov, L. G./ K. B. Gongalsky/ L. A. Pelgunova/ A. V. Tiunov 2012: Isotope composition (ä15N) of lichen thalli in forests in the vicinity of the Chernobyl atomic power station [Izotopnyi sostav azota (ä15N) tallomov lishainikov v sosnovykh lesash vblizi Chernobyl’skoi AES]. - Lesovedenie [Moscow] 2012(5): 50-58. [RLL List # 233 / Rec.# 35089]
    Notes: In Russian with English title.
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  • Breuss, O. 2012: Bemerkenswerte Flechtenfunde aus den Karnischen Alpen [Notable records of lichens from the Carnic Alps (Carinthia, Austria)]. - Herzogia 25: 103 –108. [RLL List # 233 / Rec.# 35020]
    Abstract: Ten noteworthy lichen species (Hymenelia heteromorpha, Polyblastia abscondita, P. ardesiaca, Protoblastenia lilacina, Staurothele bacilligera, S. hymenogonia, Strigula porinoides, Thelidium fontigenum, T. umbrosum, and Verrucaria lacerata) are listed from Carinthia. Strigula porinoides is reported for the first time from Austria. Short notes on characteristics, ecology and distribution of the species are provided.
    Notes: In German.
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  • Breuss, O. 2012: Coenogonium wernerhuberi, a new foliicolous lichen species (Coenogoniaceae) from Costa Rica. - Herzogia 25: 145 –148. [RLL List # 233 / Rec.# 35021]
    Abstract: A new lichenized ascomycete, Coenogonium wernerhuberi, is described from a hillside rainforest of southwestern Costa Rica. It is characterized by its hypophyllous growth, an inconspicuous, crustose thallus, small, wax-coloured apothecia, and long, fusiform ascospores. It is very similar to C. hypophyllum, from which it differs by having notably longer ascospores and smaller apothecia.
    Notes: New species: Coenogonium wernerhuberi, Breuss & Neuwirth.
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  • Eliasaro, S./ A. D. L. Gerlach/ E. L. Gumboski 2012: Novos registros de fungos liquenizados para o estado do Paraná, Brasil [New records of lichenized fungi from Paraná state, southern Brazil] . - Revista Brasileira de Biociências 10(4): 507-512. [RLL List # 233 / Rec.# 35049]
    Notes: In Portuguese with English abstract.
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  • Hall, D. W. 2012: Plants as evidence. - In: : Forensic Botany: A Practical Guide. , pp. 12-44. [RLL List # 233 / Rec.# 35164]
    Keywords: Algae, individuals, items linking to bodies of water/ Blue-green algae, in marine, nitrate-rich habitats/ Crustose lichens, thin crusts in substrate, tearing apart, difficult/ Diatoms, and "pond scum"/ Forensic evidence, and interpretation by qualified botanists/ Green algae, and freshwater "pond scum"/ Leaf lobes on blade, hooks, hairs, spines, secretions as evidence/ Nonvascular plants, mosses, liverworts in scenes of crime/ Plants used as evidence in crime scenes, in evidence retrieval/ Shelf fungus, time intervals based on growth rate
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781119945734.ch2
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  • Koœcielniak, R. 2012: The lichen Nephroma parile in the Bieszczady National Park. - Roczniki Bieszczadzkie 20: 116-122. [RLL List # 234 / Rec.# 35263]
    Notes: In Polish with English abstract.
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  • Messuti, M. I./ L. E. Lorenzo 2012: Las colecciones de hongos liquenizados del herbario del Centro Regional Universitario Bariloche (BCRU), Argentina [The lichenized fungi collections at the Herbarium Centro Regional Universitario BarilOCHE (BCRU), Argentina]. - Chloris Chilensis 15(1): . [RLL List # 233 / Rec.# 35087]
    Abstract: The lichenized fungi collections at the BCRU Herbarium are presented. The collections are significant not just for its size, but as much for its geographical focus, mainly from the southern part of Argentina and Chile.
    Notes: In Spanish with English abstract.
    URL: http://www.chlorischile.cl/messuti-liquenes%20bariloche/Messuti%20&%20Lorenzo%20liquenes.htm
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  • Moskalenko, N. G. 2012: Cryogenic landscape changes in the West Siberian northern taiga in the conditions of climate change and human-induced disturbances. - Earth's Cryosphere 16(2): 38-42. [RLL List # 232 / Rec.# 34891]
    Keywords: Active layer thickness/ Climate/ Cryogenic landscape/ Human-induced disturbances/ Permafrost/ Permafrost temperature/ Vegetation/ Western Siberia
    Abstract: The results of monitoring of cryogenic landscape changes in the West Siberian northern taiga during 1970-2010 in the conditions of the varying climate and human-induced disturbances have been presented. Process of formation of the frozen cloudberry-wild rosemary-peat moss-lichen flat peatland instead of the thawed cotton grass-sedge-moss mires has been considered. The cotton grass-peat moss bogs with the lowered permafrost table are formed after the removal of vegetation cover on flat peatlands as a result of development of thermokarst and bogging. The impact of increase in amount of atmospheric precipitation on the development of bogging on flat poorly drained sites has been examined. This bogging leads to the replacement of the pine-larch cloudberry-wild rosemary-lichen-peat moss open wood with permafrost lenses by the andromeda-cotton grass-sedge-peat moss thawed mires.
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  • Motyka, J. 2012: Ostatni wyklad [Last lecture]. - . pp. [RLL List # 233 / Rec.# 35047]
    Notes: In Polish. This is Motykas's posthumous autobiography.
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  • Osyczka, P. 2012: The lichen of Cladonia, 'supergroup' Perviae, in Poland. - Herzogia 25(1): 15-30. [RLL List # 234 / Rec.# 35214]
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  • Paudel, B./ H. D. Bhattarai/ D. P. Pandey/ J. S. Hur/ S. G. Hong/ I.-C. Kim/ J. H. Yim/ Osyczka, P./ K. Rola 2012: Antioxidant, Antibacterial activity and Brine shrimp toxicity test of some Mountainous Lichens from Nepal. - Biological Research 45(4): 387-391. [RLL List # 234 / Rec.# 35211]
    – doi:10.4067/S0716-97602012000400010

    URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-97602012000400010
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  • Piirainen, M./ X. He/ P. Salo/ R. Skytén 2012: Accessions to the Botanical Museum of the Finnish Museum of Natural History, University of Helsinki, in 2011. - Memoranda Societatis pro Fauna et Flora Fennica 88: 84-88. [RLL List # 232 / Rec.# 34907]
    Abstract: The herbarium accessions amount to 20 395 specimens, including 5 940 phanerogams and pteridophytes, 1 929 specimens of bryophytes and algae, 12 517 specimens of fungi (incl. lichens), and 1 specimen of zoocecidia. Some details of noteworthy accessions are given here.
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  • Prach, K./ J. Klimešová/ J. Košnar/ O. Redcenko/ M. Hais 2012: Variability of contemporary vegetation around Petuniabukta, central Spitsbergen. - Polish Polar Research 33(4): 383-394. [RLL List # 232 / Rec.# 34906]
    Keywords: Arctic/ Bryophytes/ Lichens/ Ordination analysis/ Svalbard/ Vascular plants/ Vegetation mapping
    Abstract: Vegetation was described in various spatial scales in the area of 37.8 km2 including distinguishing vegetation units, vegetation mapping, recording phytosociological relevés (53), and completing species lists of vascular plants (86), mosses (124) and lichens (40). Phytosociological relevés were elaborated using ordination methods DCA and CCA. The relevés formed clusters corresponding well to a priori assigned vegetation units. Slope and stoniness significantly influenced the vegetation pattern. Despite the high latitude (nearly 80 N), the vegetation is rather rich in species. Non-native species do not expand. The moss Bryum dichotomum is reported for the first time from Svalbard archipelago.
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/v10183-012-0026-z
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  • Rohrer, A./ P. O. Bilovitz/ H. Mayrhofer 2012: Lichenized fungi from the Jakupica mountain range Macedonia, FYROM). - Herzogia 25: 167-175. [RLL List # 233 / Rec.# 35026]
    Abstract: A list of 160 taxa of lichens and a lichenicolous fungus from the Jakupica mountain range is presented, of which 20 lichens (Buellia aethalea, Caloplaca aurea, C. cacuminum, Candelariella reflexa, Cladonia caespiticia, Collema subflaccidum, Lecanora glabrata, L. persimilis, Lecidella achristotera, Lepraria caesioalba, Melanelia dis­juncta, Pertusaria leioplaca, P. leucosora, Physconia detersa, Polyblastia microcarpa, Rhizocarpon obscuratum, Scoliciosporum umbrinum var. corticolum, Thelidium decipiens, T. incavatum, Verrucaria macrostoma) and the li- chenicolous fungus (Carbonea vitellinaria) are new to Macedonia.
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  • Scheidegger, C./ P. O. Bilovitz/ S. Werth/ I. Widmer/ H. Mayrhofer 2012: Hitchhiking with forests: population genetics of the epiphytic lichen Lobaria pulmonaria in primeval and managed forests in Southeastern Europe. - Ecology and Evolution 2: 2223-2240. [RLL List # 233 / Rec.# 35057]
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  • Schiefelbein, U./ P. Czarnota/ H. Thüs/ M. Kukwa 2012: The lichen biota of the Drawienski National Park (NW Poland, Western Pomerania). - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica 49: 59-71. [RLL List # 233 / Rec.# 35077]
    Abstract: The whole known lichen biota of the Drawie?ski National Park is presented. In total 290 species (262 lichenized, 25 lichenicolous and 3 lichen-related, saprotrophic fungi) are listed. Trichonectria anisospora and Milospium lacoizquetae are reported as new to Poland. Lecanora stenotropa and Phaeophyscia pusilloides are reported for the first time from Polish lowlands. The most lichenologically interesting and richest habitat complexes are the river valleys with their beech slope forests, their alluvial forests and their fast running rivers. Further habitats of high nature conservation value are roadside trees and pine forests, which inhabit a rich lichen biota as well.
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  • Solon, J./ M. Degórski 2012: Geographical patterns of selected features of the soil and herb layer in central and north European Scots pine forests. - Geographia Polonica 85(2): 83-95. [RLL List # 232 / Rec.# 34934]
    Keywords: European pine forests/ Geographical pattern/ Gradients/ Species biomass/ Species richness/ Vaccinio-piceetea
    Abstract: This paper defines the relationships between geographical location (which determines macroclimatic differentiation and reflects the history of the vegetation), soils (which determine hydrolytic acidity, degree of base saturation and organic carbon content), and selected characteristics of vegetation (species richness, herb layer biomass, moss layer biomass) in one type of forest community, namely, pine forests of the Vaccinio-Piceetea class. The study area covers the major part of the European domain of pine forests, from 70.15°N (Norway) to 50.35°N (Poland) and from 12.02°E (Sweden) to 33.6°E (Russia). The geographical pattern shows the following correlations: (a) a rise in the number of vascular plant species in the herb layer as one moves from west to east and from north to south; (b) no significant relationship between geographical location and the biomass of the herb layer, but it is possible to divide the study area into two parts: central Scandinavia, characterized by a high level of biomass, and the rest of the area, characterized by lower herb layer biomass; (c) a south-north increase in the standard deviation of herb layer biomass (serving also as a measure of spatial heterogeneity of the forest floor in terms of the synusial structure of the community); (d) greater biomass of the bryophyte (moss+lichen) layer in the north than in the south and in the east than in the west; (e) stability at lower latitudes of standard deviation for moss biomass (serving also as a measure of spatial heterogeneity of the forest floor in terms of the synusial structure of the community), albeit with a sharp increase north of latitude 55°N. © Jerzy Solon, Marek Degórski.
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.7163/GPol.2012.2.13
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  • Spier, L. 2012: Punctelia reddenda (gelobd stippelschildmos) doet het goed op een berk in een voortuin te Amersfoort [Punctelia reddenda (Stirt.) Krog thrives on a birch in a front garden in Amersfoort. - Buxbaumiella 94: 9-12. [RLL List # 233 / Rec.# 35030]
    Notes: In Dutch with English abstract.
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  • Timmerman, H. 2012: De korstmossen van het voorjaarsweekend 2012 naar de Noordoost-Veluwe [Lichenological report of the BLWG spring meeting 2012 in the north-eastern part of the Veluwe, Netherlands]. - Buxbaumiella 94: 33-38. [RLL List # 233 / Rec.# 35031]
    Notes: In Dutch with English abstract.
    URL:
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  • Truong, C./ P. Clerc 2012: The lichen genus Usnea (Parmeliaceae) in tropical South America: Species with a pigmented medulla, reacting C+ yellow. - Lichenologist 44(5): 625-637. [RLL List # 233 / Rec.# 35082]
    Keywords: chemistry/ endemism/ morphology/ Neotropics/ taxonomy/ Parmeliaceae/ Usnea/ Usnea ceratina
    Abstract: In tropical South America (Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and Brazil), we investigated the diversity of Usnea species with a pigmented, C+ yellow medulla. Four species are treated: the sorediate U. ceratina and U. entoviolata, the latter being new for South America, and the non-sorediate U. cristatula and U. flavorubescens, the latter being newly described here. A detailed description is provided for each species together with an identification key. Copyright © British Lichen Society 2012.
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0024282912000400
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  • £ubek, A./ E. Biskup 2012: Epiphytic lichens and lichenicolous fungi of fruit trees in the commune of S³awno [Porosty epifityczne i grzyby naporostowe drzew owocowych w gminie S³awno]. - Chroñmy Przyrodê Ojczyst¹ 68(3): 186-197. [RLL List # 234 / Rec.# 35264]
    Notes: In Polish with English abstract
    URL:
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  • Zdunczyk, A./ M. Dziedzic/ M. Kukwa 2012: The lichen genus Pertusaria in Poland II. Secondary chemistry of P. Flavida. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica 49: 77-81. [RLL List # 233 / Rec.# 35081]
    Abstract: This paper presents a study on a chemical variation of Pertusaria flavida in Poland. Six chemotypes were determined in the studied material, of which chemotypes IV, V and VI were never reported before. All of them produce thiophaninic acid as the diagnostic metabolite for the species and this is the only major substance in chemotype I. Chemotype II contains in addition also 2'-O-methylperlatolic acid (± confluentic acid), whereas chemotype III stictic acid complex (± minor or trace amounts of norstictic acid). Chemotype IV is characterized by the presence of 2'-O-methylperlatolic acid and stictic acid complex (± norstictic acid in minor to trace amounts). Chemotype V produce norstictic acid as a major additional substance and chemotype VI contains 2'-O-methylperlatolic acid together with norstictic acid. Chemotype II was the most common chemotype (c.75 % of specimens) in studied material. Distribution maps are presented for all chemotypes.
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  • Abed, R. M. M./ P. Lam/ D. De Beer/ P. Stief 2013: High rates of denitrification and nitrous oxide emission in arid biological soil crusts from the Sultanate of Oman. - ISME Journal 7(9): 1862-1875. [RLL List # 232 / Rec.# 34990]
    Keywords: biological soil crust/ denitrification/ microsensors/ nitrogen cycle/ quantitative PCR/ stable isotopes/ ammonium/ bacterium/ denitrification/ desert soil/ lichen/ nitrogen/ nitrous oxide/ oxidation/ soil crust/ soil fertility/ tracer/ Oman/ Bacteria (microorganisms)/ Cyanobacteria/ Paracoccus denitrificans/ uncultured denitrifying bacterium
    Abstract: Using a combination of process rate determination, microsensor profiling and molecular techniques, we demonstrated that denitrification, and not anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox), is the major nitrogen loss process in biological soil crusts from Oman. Potential denitrification rates were 584±101 and 58±20 ?mol N m -2 h -1 for cyanobacterial and lichen crust, respectively. Complete denitrification to N 2 was further confirmed by an 15 NO 3
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ismej.2013.55
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  • Allen, J. L./ J. C. Lendemer 2013: Uncovering chemical variability: Molecular data reveal the identity of a sterile crustose lichen from the Yukon and affirm an expanded circumscription for Buellia griseovirens. - North American Fungi 8(12): 1-14. [RLL List # 232 / Rec.# 34956]
    Keywords: Biogeography/ Boreal forest/ Chemotaxonomy
    Abstract: Here we present the results of a study using molecular data (nrITS and mtSSU sequences) to aid in the identification of a sterile, sorediate crustose lichen from the Yukon Territory of Canada. BLASTn and megaBLAST indicated an affinity to the family Caliciaceae, specifically the Buellioideae. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of mtSSU sequences from the Caliciaceae affirmed this placement, and recovered a strongly supported clade composed of the unidentified populations and members of Buellia s.l. Internal transcribed spacer sequences of the taxon were >99% similar to two sequences of B. griseovirens, a relationship supported by additional molecular phylogenetic analyses. This is the first report of the occurrence of norstictic acid deficient populations of B. griseovirens from North America. It is also the first study to use molecular data to examine, and confirm, some of the chemical variability in B. griseovirens proposed in previous revisions. © 2013 Pacific Northwest Fungi Project. All rights reserved.
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.2509/naf2013.008.012
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  • Anshakova, V. V./ B. M. Kershengolts 2013: Biological preparations on the basis of Reindeer moss as detoxifier internal environment of the organism. - Russian Journal of Biopharmaceuticals 5(4): 16-20. [RLL List # 232 / Rec.# 34944]
    Keywords: Biosorbent/ Detoxification/ Lichen
    Abstract: It is shown that the lichen can be a source of raw material to produce sorbents adsorption activity. Influence of «Reindeer moss» biologically active additive (BAA) on biochemical indexes of blood of volunteers with initially raised level of glucose and cholesterol is investigated. It is revealed that after three-week reception of drug at volunteers level of glucose, cholesterol and aterogen quotient significantly decreases.
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  • Aptroot, A./ D. Ertz, D./ E. L. Lima/ K. A. Jesus/ L. C. Maia/ M. E. D. S. Cáceres 2013: Two new species of Roccellaceae (Ascomycota: Arthoniales) from Brazil, with the description of the new genus Sergipea. - Lichenologist 45(5): 627-634. [RLL List # 232 / Rec.# 34991]
    Keywords: Atlantic rainforest/ Catinga/ corticolous/ Dichosporidium/ Enterographa/ Erythrodecton/ lichens/ Pernambuco/ Sergipe
    Abstract: The new lichen genus Sergipea M. Cáceres, Ertz & Aptroot is described in the Roccellaceae, based on the new species Sergipea aurata M. Cáceres, Ertz & Aptroot from NE Brazil. The species was found in a remnant of Atlantic transition forest in Sergipe. It is similar in many respects to species of the genus Enterographa, but it is characterized by bright orange stromata, due to the presence of an anthraquinone, and a thallus with a somewhat byssoid hypothallus. Phylogenetically it is close to the genera Dichosporidium and Erythrodecton. The phylogenetic position of the generic type of Dichosporidium confirms the close relationship of the genus to Erythrodecton in the basal branch of the Roccellaceae. A new species of Enterographa is also described from NE Brazil. Enterographa rotundata E. L. Lima, M. Cáceres & Aptroot has solitary, round apothecia, which is unusual in this genus with mainly elongated apothecia or punctiform apothecia arranged in lines. It was found in Caatinga forest in Pernambuco. Copyright © British Lichen Society 2013.
    Notes: New genus Sergipea M. Cáceres, Ertz & Aptroot; new species Sergipea aurata M. Cáceres, Ertz & Aptroot and Enterographa rotundata E. L. Lima, M. Cáceres & Aptroot.
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0024282913000303
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  • Aptroot, A./ H. Kashiwadani/ K. H. Moon/ Y. Futagami 2013: Pyrenocarpous lichens in cambodia, with the description of Celothelium longisporum sp. nov. (Pyrenulales). - Journal of Japanese Botany 88(5): 309-315. [RLL List # 233 / Rec.# 35112]
    Keywords: Cambodia/ Celothelium/ Longisporum/ Pyrenocarpous lichen
    Abstract: Celoihelium longisporum is described as a new species from Cambodia. In addition to the ten species of pyrenocarpous lichens so far reported from Cambodia, eight species including the new species are added to the lichen flora of Cambodia. The total number of lichen species known from Cambodia up to 63.
    Notes: New species: Celothelium longisporum Aptroot, Kashiw. & K. H. Moon.
    URL:
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  • Aptroot, A./ M. M. D. De Oliveira/ M. E. S. Cáceres 2013: Protoparmelia capitata (Ascomycota: Parmeliaceae): New record for South America. - Acta Botanica Brasilica 27(3): 498-501. [RLL List # 232 / Rec.# 34962]
    Keywords: Alectoronic acid/ Atlantic Forest/ Bahia/ Caatinga/ New record/ Northeastern Brazil/ Santa Teresinha/ Serra da Jiboia/ Sorediate species
    Abstract: The sterile corticolous crustose lichen Protoparmelia capitata (Ascomycota: Parmeliaceae), recently described for southeastern North America, is reported as a new record for South America in the Serra da Jiboia mountain range, near the municipality of Santa Teresinha, in the state of Bahia, in northeastern Brazil. This species is locally common and is probably closely related to P. isidiata, which has the same pigmentation and medullary chemistry, P. capitata differing from P. isidiata in that the former features soredia rather than isidia.
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-33062013000300006
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  • Aradottir, A. L./ G. Oskarsdottir 2013: The use of native turf transplants for roadside: Revegetation in a subarctic area. - Icelandic Agricultural Sciences 26(1): 59-67. [RLL List # 232 / Rec.# 34941]
    Keywords: Biodiversity/ Ecological restoration/ Heathland/ Iceland/ Vegetation dynamics
    Abstract: Most road construction projects involve roadside revegetation to control soil erosion and improve road aesthetics. Using native species for roadside revegetation may reduce biodiversity losses and maintenance costs compared to traditional seeding of fast-growing species. We assessed the transplantation of large (> 50 cm diameter), fresh turfs for the revegetation of road verges at a high-elevation subarctic site in SW Iceland by comparing their vegetation composition to adjacent heathland. The road verges had 65% of the vegetation cover of adjacent heathland after two years and 93% after five years. Vascular heathland species had 85% transplant success after five years, but grasses were more abundant in the road verges than the heathland. The most common moss and lichen species survived the transplantation, but with reduced cover compared to the heathland. Thus, transplantation of fresh turfs can quickly establish vegetation cover and diverse plant communities, although the relative abundance of some species may diverge from the donor sites.
    URL:
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  • Aragón, G./ R. Belinchón/ I. Martínez/ M. Prieto 2013: Estimating epiphytic lichen richness by single families in Mediterranean forests. - Forest Ecology and Management 310: 187-193. [RLL List # 232 / Rec.# 34947]
    Keywords: Epiphytic lichens/ Forest structure/ Indicator species/ Mediterranean/ Species richness
    Abstract: The current trend of declining epiphytic richness caused by human activities (forest fragmentation, logging, agriculture, and livestock grazing) and the greater efforts required to sample and identify the most inconspicuous species have necessitated the use of indicators of the species richness. In this study, we examined the potential of predicting epiphytic lichen richness based on the richness of a single taxon (family) of the most conspicuous lichens (macrolichens) in Mediterranean woodlands. Since our working hypothesis is that the richness of some conspicuous elements is tightly connected with the total richness, we expect this connection is maintained even after composition shifts (for instance composition changes between coniferous and oak forests). In order to control the large set of confounding factors at macro- and microclimate scales our present study was conducted in 504 forest stands, which represented a wide range of Mediterranean climates, management intensity levels, canopy cover types, and tree sizes. The presence/absence of epiphytic lichens were determined in 7560 trees, which were dominated by coniferous (Pinus nigra and P. sylvestris) and oak (Quercus ilex ssp. ballota, Q. faginea, and Q. pyrenaica) species. In oak forests, the increased richness of Collemataceae and the complex known as "rest of Peltigerales" was followed by an increase in the overall epiphytic richness, whereas there was a strong positive correlation between Parmeliaceae and total epiphytic richness in coniferous forests. In both cases, the richness of these predictors increased in well-preserved forest stands with dense canopies. Thus, we propose the potential use of Parmeliaceae (for coniferous forests) and the Collemataceae and the "rest of Peltigerales" (for oak forests) as indicators in the Mediterranean region because they have a cosmopolitan distribution, grow in a wide range of environmental conditions, and are correlated with changes in the epiphytic richness caused by forest disturbances. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2013.08.012
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  • Ardelean, I. V./ C. Keller/ C. Scheidegger 2013: Lichen flora of Rodnei Mountains National Park (Eastern Carpathians, Romania) including new records for the Romanian mycoflora. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica 50: 101-115. [RLL List # 232 / Rec.# 34977]
    Abstract: We investigated the lichen flora of the main habitats existing in Rodnei Mountains identifying 283 lichen species, and one subspecific taxon. Of these, 67 taxa are new records for the lichen flora of Romania, and 182 species are reported for the first time in Rodnei Mountains. Considering previous reports and our results, 442 lichen taxa are reported in Rodnei Mountains region in total, accounting for approx. 35% of the total lichen flora of Romania. When comparing the Red Lists of Romania and surrounding Carpathian countries, our data revealed the presence of a high number of threatened species in the region.
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.12697/fce.2013.50.13
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  • Aslan, A./ H. Gurbuz/ K. Yazici/ A. Cicek/ M. Turan/ S. Ercisli 2013: Evaluation of lichens as bio-indicators of metal pollution. - Journal of Elementology 18(3): 353-369. [RLL List # 233 / Rec.# 35065]
    Keywords: Cement plant pollution/ Enrichment factor/ Heavy metal pollution/ Lichens
    Abstract: The objectives of this study have been to determine the impact of the distance from a combustor of a cement plant (downwind direction) and duration of exposure to pollution on the bioaccumulation of metals by four lichen species. Nickel, cadmium, chromium, copper and lead accumulated in lichen thalli, with the highest accumulation occurring at 50 m of the cement plant and upon prolonged exposure. In contrast, the concentrations of Al were not consistently affected by the distance from the plant or the duration of exposure. Pseudevernia furfuracea was most effective as an indicator of cement dust pollution. We concluded that transplantation of Pseudevernia furfuracea on trees or shrubs can be an easy and cost-effective means of Ni, Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb pollution monitoring.
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.5601/jelem.2013.18.3.01
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  • Augusto, S./ M. J. Pereira/ C. Máguas/ C. Branquinho 2013: A step towards the use of biomonitors as estimators of atmospheric PAHs for regulatory purposes. - Chemosphere 92(5): 626-632. [RLL List # 232 / Rec.# 34893]
    Keywords: Air/ BaP/ Biomonitors/ Environment/ Human health/ PAHs
    Abstract: One of the main drawbacks of using lichens to monitor atmospheric PAHs has been reported as the inexistence of studies aiming to translate PAH values in lichens into the atmospheric equivalents ones, in order to use this information for regulatory purposes. In this work, PAH concentrations in lichens were compared with PAH concentrations measured in a conventional active sampler in an outdoor environment for a 9-month span. Significant positive correlations between HMW-PAHs, ?16 EPA-PAHs, and BaP equivalent concentrations in lichens and those in air (TSP) were found. Concentrations of ?16 EPA-PAHs in lichens and air showed a seasonal variation, with highest values during winter and lowest values during summer. Meteorological variables
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.03.068
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  • Azua-Bustos, A./ C. Vega-Martínez 2013: The potential for detecting 'life as we don't know it' by fractal complexity analysis. - International Journal of Astrobiology 12(4): 314-320. [RLL List # 232 / Rec.# 34940]
    Keywords: complexity/ fractal/ life
    Abstract: Abstract Finding life in the Universe entirely different to the one evolved on Earth is probable. This is a significant constraint for life-detecting instruments that were sent and may be sent elsewhere in the solar system, as how could we detect life as 'we don't know it'? How could we detect something when we have no prior knowledge of its composition or how it looks like? Here we argue that disregarding the type of lifeform that could be envisioned, all must share in common the attribute of being entities that decrease their internal entropy at the expense of free energy obtained from its surroundings. As entropy quantifies the degree of disorder in a system, any envisioned lifeform must have a higher degree of order than its supporting environment. Here, we show that by using fractal mathematics analysis alone, one can readily quantify the degree of entropy difference (and thus, their structural complexity) of living processes (lichen growths and plant growing patterns in this case) as distinct entities separate from its similar abiotic surroundings. This approach may allow possible detection of unknown forms of life based on nothing more than entropy differentials of complementary datasets. Future explorations in the solar system, like Mars or Titan, may incorporate this concept in their mission planning in order to detect potential endemic lifeforms. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2013Â.
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1473550413000177
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  • Bajpai, R./ V. Shukla/ D. K. Upreti 2013: Impact assessment of anthropogenic activities on air quality, using lichen Remototrachyna awasthii as biomonitor. - International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 10(6): 1287-1294. [RLL List # 233 / Rec.# 35126]
    Keywords: Biomonitoring/ Health risk assessment/ Heavy metals/ Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons/ Western Ghats/ Anthropogenic activity/ Biomonitoring/ Control sites/ Impact assessments/ Metal concentrations/ Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS)/ Vehicular emission/ Western ghats/ Air quality/ Biodiversity/ Fungi/ Health risks/ Heavy metals/ Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry/ Risk assessment/ Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
    Abstract: The study was carried out with an aim to assess the heavy metal (HM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the air of a biodiversity as well as tourist-rich area of Western Ghats by applying a most frequent growing lichen Remototrachyna awasthii (Hale and Patw.) Divakar and A. Crespo, as biomonitor. Thalli of R. awasthii were collected from eight sites of Mahabaleshwar area located in Western Ghats. Samples were prepared for HM and PAHs quantification by ICP-MS and HPLC, respectively. Total metal concentration (HM) ranged from 644 to 2,277.5 ?g g-1 while PAHs concentration between 0.193 and 54.78 ?g g-1. HM and PAHs concentrations were the highest at Bus Stand while control site (Lingmala Fall) exhibited the lowest concentration of HM as well as PAHs followed by samples from Wilson point (both these sites are having trekking route). It was also evident from this study that vehicular emission played a significant role in the release of HM and PAHs as pollutants in the environment. The effectiveness of R. awasthii as biomonitor could be further investigated by comparing this species with other biomonitors. © 2013 Islamic Azad University (IAU).
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13762-012-0156-1
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  • Baloch, E./ H. T. Lumbsh/ R. Lucking/ M. Wedin 2013: New combinations and names in Gyalecta for former Belonia and Pachyphiale (Ascomycota, Ostropales) species. - The Lichenologist 45(6): 723–727. [RLL List # 234 / Rec.# 35251]
    – doi:10.1017/S0024282913000492

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  • Barreto, R. S. S./ R. L. C. Albuquerque-Júnior/ R. N. Pereira-Filho/ J. S. S. Quintans/ A. S. Barreto/ J. M. Desantana/ V. J. Santana-Filho/ M. R. V. Santos/ L .R. Bonjardim/ A. A. S. Araújo/ L. J. Quintans-Júnior 2013: Evaluation of wound healing activity of Atranorin, a lichen secondary metabolite, on rodents. - Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy 23(2): 310-319. [RLL List # 232 / Rec.# 34923]
    Keywords: Atranorin/ Biomedicinal technology/ Granulation tissue/ Natural products/ Wound healing
    Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the wound healing activity of atranorin cream (Patent requested) on excision wounds. Seventy-two male rats were anesthetized and an excisional wound was performed. Then the rats were randomly assigned into three groups: untreated control group; atranorin 1 (group treated with 1% AT ointment); and atranorin 5 (group treated with 5% AT ointment). Six animals of each group were euthanized 3, 7, 14 or 21 days after surgical procedures and the wounded areas were analyzed and removed. Serial histological sections were obtained and stained by histochemical techniques (Hematoxilin-Eosin-HEand Sirius red) and immunohistochemical techniques. Topical application of atranorin reduced wound areas, induced earlier granulation tissue formation, increased cell proliferation, improved collagenization and modulated the myofi broblasts differentiation when compared to control animals. It is suggested that atranorin modulates the wound healing process. These data suggest that this formulation based on atranorin extracted from Cladina kalbii AHTI may be a new biotechnological product for wound healing clinical applications.
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-695X2013005000010
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  • Benatti, M.N. 2013: A review of the genus Bulbothrix Hale: species with gyrophoric, lecanoric or lobaric acids lacking vegetative propagules. - Opuscula Philolichenum 12: 151-173. [RLL List # 233 / Rec.# 35013]
    Keywords: Parmeliaceae, bulbate cilia
    Abstract: This study is a taxonomic review of nine species of Bulbothrix (Parmeliaceae, lichenized fungi) containing gyrophoric, lecanoric or lobaric acids and whose thalli do not form isidia, soredia or pustules. The current species delimitations are confirmed. New characteristics are detailed, some synonyms are rejected, others confirmed, and range extensions are given. Lectotypes are selected for Parmelia coronata (= B. coronata) and P. glandulifera (= B. coronata).
    URL: http://sweetgum.nybg.org/philolichenum/biblio_detail.php?irn=295934
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  • Bendiksby, M./ E. Timdal 2013: Molecular phylogenetics and taxonomy of Hypocenomyce sensu lato (Ascomycota: Lecanoromycetes): Extreme polyphyly and morphological/ecological convergence. - Taxon 62(5): 940-956. [RLL List # 233 / Rec.# 35161]
    Keywords: Burnt wood/ Hypocenomyce/ Lecideoid lichens/ Molecular phylogenetics/ Polyphyly/ Taxonomy/ Bayesian analysis/ data set/ fungus/ mitochondrial DNA/ morphology/ parsimony analysis/ phylogenetics/ species diversity/ taxonomy
    Abstract: We have addressed phylogenetic relationships and tested hypotheses about five presumed subgroups among 15 species of Hypocenomyce s.l. (including Pycnora) by use of nuclear (ITS, LSU) and mitochondrial (SSU) ribosomal DNA-regions. Bayesian, likelihood and parsimony phylogenetic analyses, of a dataset with broad Lecanoromycete taxon sampling, mostly support the five presumed subgroups, but two of these were found to be polyphyletic (the H. friesii-group and Pycnora). The seven supported Hypocenomyce s.l. clades belong in different genera, families, orders and even subclasses, and represent a remarkable example of morphological and ecological convergence. Based on our molecular phylogenetic results, we split Hypocenomyce into four genera placed in two subclasses: (1) Carbonicola gen. nov. (Carbonicolaceae fam. nov., Lecanorales, Lecanoromycetidae; including C. anthracophila comb. nov., C. foveata comb. nov., and C. myrmecina comb. nov.); (2) Fulgidea gen. nov. (Umbilicariaceae, Umbilicariales, Umbilicariomycetidae subcl. nov.; including F. oligospora comb. nov. and F. sierrae comb. nov.); (3) Hypocenomyce (Ophioparmaceae, Umbilicariales; including H. australis, H. scalaris, and H. tinderryensis; and (4) Xylopsora gen. nov. (Umbilicariaceae; including X. caradocensis comb. nov. and X. friesii comb. nov.). We split Pycnora into two genera: (1) Pycnora (Pycnoraceae fam. nov., Candelariales, "Candelariomycetidae"; including P. praestabilis, P. sorophora, and P. xanthococca); and (2) Toensbergia gen. nov. (Sporastatiaceae fam. nov., unknown order, Lecanoromycetidae; including T. leucococca comb. nov.). We place Hypocenomyce isidiosa in Xylographa (Trapeliaceae, Baeomycetales, Ostropomycetidae; X. isidiosa comb. nov.). We place the family Ophioparmaceae in the Umbilicariales. Our type studies have shown that the epithet "myrmecina" should replace "castaneocinerea", and lectotypes are chosen for Lecidea friesii Ach., L. scalaris var. myrmecina Ach., Psora cladonioides var. albocervina Rdsänen, and P. cladonioides var. castaneocinerea Räsänen. Elixia cretica is reported as new to North America (from Mexico) and Australia.
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.12705/625.18
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  • Benesperi, R./ L. Lastrucci/ J. Nascimbene 2013: Human disturbance threats the red-listed macrolichen Seirophora villosa (Ach.) Frödén in coastal Juniperus habitats: Evidence from western peninsular Italy. - Environmental Management 52(4): 939-945. [RLL List # 233 / Rec.# 35098]
    Keywords: Community nestedness/ Conservation/ Dispersal limitations/ Epiphytic lichens/ Habitat continuity/ Indicator species/ Dispersal limitations/ Epiphytic lichens/ Habitat continuity/ Indicator species/ Nestedness/ Biodiversity/ Conservation/ Forestry/ Fungi/ Ecosystems/ abundance/ biodiversity/ bioindicator/ coastal zone/ community composition/ coniferous tree/ epiphyte/ habitat conservation/ human activity/ lichen/ nestedness/ Red List/ species occurrence/ species richness/ article/ coastal waters/ habitat patchiness/ habitat quality/ human impact (environment)/ indicator organism/ Italy/ Juniperus/ lichen (organism)/ nonhuman/ population abundance/ Seirophora villosa/ species composition/ species conservation/ species habitat/ species richness/ vegetation dynamics/ zonation/ Italy/ Tuscany/ Animalia/ Juniperus/ Seirophora villosa/ Tracheophyta
    Abstract: In Europe, coastal dune systems with Juniperus spp. (Natura 2000 habitat code 2250) are a priority habitat for conservation according to the Natura 2000 policies. Currently, anthropogenic pressure is threatening the biodiversity of this habitat. While the impact of human pressure on animals and vascular plants is already documented, information is still scanty for other organisms such as epiphytic lichens. The main aim of this study is to test the effect of human disturbance on the occurrence and abundance of the red-listed macrolichen Seirophora villosa. We also tested the effect of human disturbance on the whole community of epiphytic lichens in terms of species richness and composition. The study was performed along the coast of Tuscany by comparing both disturbed and undisturbed Juniperus stands according to a stratified random sampling design. Our results provided evidence that in coastal systems the long-term conservation of the red-listed macrolichen S. villosa and its characteristic community composed by several Mediterranean species of conservation concern depends on the maintenance of undisturbed Juniperus habitats. Results also support the possibility of using S. villosa as an indicator species of habitat conservation importance and habitat integrity since its occurrence is predicted on nestedness in term of species composition, assemblages of species poor disturbed stands being subsets of those of richer undisturbed stands. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00267-013-0081-1
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  • Bhattarai, H. D./ T. Kim/ H. Oh/ J. H. Yim 2013: A new pseudodepsidone from the Antarctic lichen Stereocaulon alpinum and its antioxidant, antibacterial activity. - Journal of Antibiotics 66(9): 559-561. [RLL List # 233 / Rec.# 35070]
    Keywords: Antibacterial/ Depsidones/ Lichen metabolites/ Lobaric acid/ Stereocaulon alpinum
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ja.2013.41
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  • Biazrov, L. G. 2013: Range formulas of lichenized fungi of the family Umbilicariaceae from Mongolia on the base of the World terrestrial ecoregions map [Formuly arealov likhenizirovannykh gribov semeistva Umbilicariaceae na osnove obshchemirovoi karty ekoregionov sushy]. - Novosti Sistematiki Nizshikh Rastenii 47: 179-199. [RLL List # 233 / Rec.# 35090]
    Notes: In Russian with English title.
    URL:
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  • Biazrov L. G./ L. A. Pelgunova 2013: Estimation of the proportion of some elements and their distribution on a surface of thallus of lichenized fungus Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr. using sample-nondestructive ƒÊ-XRF spectrometer M4 Tornado [Ozenka sootnosheniya nekotoryh elementov i ih raspredeleniya na poverkhnosti sloevishcha likhenizirovannogo griba Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th.Fr. ne razrushayushchim obrazets microrentgenofluoreszentnym spektrometrom (μRFS) M4 Tornado . - Principy ekologii 2013(2/3): 37-52. [RLL List # 234 / Rec.# 35247]
    Notes: In Russian.
    URL: http://ecopri.ru
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  • Bielczyk, U./ L. Sliwa 2013: Pracownia lichenologii [History of Polish lichenology]. - In: Godzik, B./K. Wolowski: Historia bad i rozwoju. , pp. 177-206. [RLL List # 233 / Rec.# 35032]
    Notes: In Polish.
    URL:
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  • Bjerke, J. W./ S. Bokhorst/ T. V. Callaghan/ M. Zielke/ G. K. Phoenix/ Ophof, A. A./ K. W. Oldeboer/ J/ Kumpula 2013: Intake and chemical composition of winter and spring forage plants consumed by semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in Northern Finland. - Animal Feed Science and Technology 185(3-4): 190-195. [RLL List # 233 / Rec.# 35063]
    Keywords: carbon flux/ climate change/ cryptogams/ dormancy/ gas exchange/ nitrogen fixation/ reactivation/ snow melt/ subnivean environment/ winter warming/ Chemical composition/ Diet/ Faeces/ Forage plants/ Nutrition/ Reindeer
    Abstract: Reindeer diets are highly influenced by seasonal availability of forage plants and their nutritive value. This study investigated the use and chemical composition of winter and spring forage plants consumed by semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) grazing on natural pastures in Northern Finland. Reindeer diet composition was determined by microhistological analysis of faeces collected during winter and spring. Terrestrial lichen species (mainly Cladonia sp.) dominated the winter and spring diet of reindeer, as well as various dwarf shrub species. A seasonal shift occurred in the diet, with proportion of lichen which corresponded with an increase in graminoids as spring progressed, reflecting reindeer adaptations to seasonal fluctuations of forage quality and availability. Chemical composition of forage plants showed that terrestrial lichen had high levels of hemicellulose, while arboreal lichen had relatively high nitrogen levels. In contrast, new growth of birch leaf, graminoids and dwarf shrub had high levels of crude protein, ether extract and minerals. The observed diet composition and its chemical content reflect high seasonal variability in the availability and intake of nutrients to which reindeer have adapted. © 2013.
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2013.08.005
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  • Boan, J. J./ B. E. Mclaren/ J. R. Malcolm 2013: Predicting non-inventoried forest elements using forest inventory data: The case of winter forage for woodland caribou. - Ecoscience 20(2): 101-111. [RLL List # 233 / Rec.# 35154]
    Keywords: Cladonia/ forage/ Forest resource inventory/ Remote-sensing/ Wildlife habitat models/ Woodland caribou/ coniferous forest/ deer/ forage/ forest canopy/ forest inventory/ forest management/ lichen/ remote sensing/ timber/ woodland/ Canada/ Ontario [Canada]
    Abstract: Growing development pressures and expectations that forest managers provide future wildlife habitat require better understanding of species' habitat needs, particularly food, cover, and space requirements, and an ability to spatially depict these needs. In forest management in Canada, the primary data used to identify and quantify wildlife habitat reside in remotely sensed forest resource inventories (FRI) that were originally developed to assess timber values for merchantable tree species. Although FRI- and field-based sampling do not always show strong agreement, research has shown that FRI can be informative for wildlife habitat assessments. However, much uncertainty remains when investigating forest characteristics that are not visible to the interpreters, such as sub-canopy features. Here, we used 152 plots in northwestern Ontario to compare the ability of field-based and remotely sensed forest inventories to predict Cladonia lichen cover, a primary winter food source for woodland caribou. The best model for field-based data, which included percentage of jack pine and black spruce in the tree canopy, tree height, stand age, soil moisture, and stem density, correctly predicted 92% of cases where Cladonia spp. were absent (n = 107 plots) and 62% of cases where they were present (i.e., cover >1%; n = 45 plots). FRI performed poorly by contrast, with corresponding percentages of 96 and 19%. FRI provide weak data support for differentiating winter forage availability for woodland caribou, an important habitat factor at the stand level. These findings have important implications for predictions of herd productivity, and suggest that improved remote-sensing capabilities are required in order to assess woodland caribou winter habitat.
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.2980/20-2-3567
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  • Boch, S./ J. Müller/ D. Prati/ S. Blaser/ M. Fischer 2013: Up in the tree – The overlooked richness of bryophytes and lichens in tree crowns. - PLoS One 8(12): e84913. [RLL List # 234 / Rec.# 35238]
    Abstract: Assessing diversity is among the major tasks in ecology and conservation science. In ecological and conservation studies, epiphytic cryptogams are usually sampled up to accessible heights in forests. Thus, their diversity, especially of canopy specialists, likely is underestimated. If the proportion of those species differs among forest types, plot-based diversity assessments are biased and may result in misleading conservation recommendations. We sampled bryophytes and lichens in 30 forest plots of 20 m × 20 m in three German regions, considering all substrates, and including epiphytic litter fall. First, the sampling of epiphytic species was restricted to the lower 2 m of trees and shrubs. Then, on one representative tree per plot, we additionally recorded epiphytic species in the crown, using tree climbing techniques. Per tree, on average 54% of lichen and 20% of bryophyte species were overlooked if the crown was not been included. After sampling all substrates per plot, including the bark of all shrubs and trees, still 38% of the lichen and 4% of the bryophyte species were overlooked if the tree crown of the sampled tree was not included. The number of overlooked lichen species varied strongly among regions. Furthermore, the number of overlooked bryophyte and lichen species per plot was higher in European beech than in coniferous stands and increased with increasing diameter at breast height of the sampled tree. Thus, our results indicate a bias of comparative studies which might have led to misleading conservation recommendations of plot-based diversity assessments.
    – doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0084913

    URL:
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  • Breuss, O. 2013: Erwähnenswerte Flechtenfunde im Lechquellengebirge und in den Lechta­ler Alpen (Vorarlberg, Österreich) [Notable findings of lichens from the Lechtaler Alps (Vorarlberg, Austria)]. - Österreichische Zeitschrift für Pilzkunde 22: 85-92. [RLL List # 234 / Rec.# 35220]
    Abstract: Nineteen lichen taxa are reported as new from the austrian priovince of Vorarlberg
    Notes: In German with English abstract.
    URL:
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  • Breuss, O. 2013: Byssoloma laurisilvae und Thelotrema lueckingii, zwei neue Flechtenarten aus Madeira [Byssoloma laurisilvae and Thelotrema lueckingii, two new lichen species from Madeira]. - Österreichische Zeitschrift für Pilzkunde 22: 99-105. [RLL List # 234 / Rec.# 35222]
    Notes: In German with English abstract. New species: Byssoloma laurisilvae Breuss and Thelotrema lueckingii Breuss.
    URL: http://www.myk.univie.ac.at/Open%20Access/%C3%96ZP22/%C3%B622i_Breuss_Byssoloma.pdf
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  • Breuss, O./ P. Clerc 2013: Erstnachweise und weitere bemerkenswerte Funde pyrenocarper Flechten in der Schweiz [New records and other noteworthy findings of lichens in Switzerland.]. - Österreichische Zeitschrift für Pilzkunde 22: 93-98. [RLL List # 234 / Rec.# 35221]
    Notes: In German with English abstract.
    URL:
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  • Brodo, I. M./ R. C. Harris/ W. R. Buck/ J. C. Lendemer/ C. Lewis 2013: Lichens of the Bruce Peninsula, Ontario: Results from the 17th Tuckerman Workshop, 18-22 Sept. 2008. - Opuscula Philolichenum 12: 198-232. [RLL List # 233 / Rec.# 35034]
    Abstract: An inventory of the lichens of Bruce Peninsula National Park and Fathom Five National Marine Park in the Georgian Bay area of southern Ontario was carried out by 30 lichenologists participating in the 2008 Tuckerman Workshop. A list of 370 species of lichens, related fungi and lichenicolous fungi was compiled, documenting that the parks are remarkably rich in lichens, including many rarities. Following the park inventory, an additional 21 lichens from Bruce County are listed based on the published literature and other recent collections. Twelve lichens, one related fungus and nine lichenicolous fungi are additions to the Canadian lichen flora: Acarospora moenium, Bagliettoa baldensis, Biatora ocelliformis, Caloplaca flavocitrina, Clavascidium umbrinum, Dermatocarpon dolomiticum, D. muhlenbergii, Heppia adglutinata, Lecania cuprea, Opegrapha mougeotii, Thelidium minutulum, Heteroplacidium compactum; Mycoglaena myricae; Capronia peltigerae, Lichenoconium erodens, Muellerella hospitans, M. ventosicola, Phaeopyxis punctum, Phoma cladoniicola, Plectocarpon cladoniae, Polycoccum minutulum, Tremella candelariellae. An additional 35 lichens, two related fungi, and 13 lichenicolous fungi are new for Ontario: Acarospora macrospora, Biatora chrysantha, B. turgidula, Biatorella hemisphaerica, Botryolepraria lesdainii, Buellia griseovirens, Caloplaca saxicola, C. subsoluta, Cladonia atlantica, Clauzadea monticola, Cliostomum leprosum, Diplotomma venustum, Enterographa zonata, Farnoldia hypocrita, Gyalecta foveolaris, Hymenelia heteromorpha, Lempholemma isidiodes, Lepraria caesiella, L. eburnea, Leptogium intermedium, Opegrapha rufescens, Placidium squamulosum, Porpidia contraponenda, P. macrocarpa f. nigrocruenta, P. soredizodes, P. superba, Pseudosagedia aenea, Psorotichia schaereri, Pycnora sorophora, Sagiolechia protuberans, Thelocarpon epibolum var. epithallinum, Trapeliopsis pseudogranulosa, Vezdaea acicularis, Violella fucata and Xylographa vitiligo; Epigloea pleiospora and Sarea difformis; Clypeococcum hypocenomycis, Cornutispora ciliaris, Lettauia cladoniicola, Lichenodiplis lecanorae, Marchandiomyces corallinus, Muellerella erratica, M. lichenicola, Nectriopsis parmeliae, Phoma cladoniicola, Pronectria robergei, Refractohilum peltigerae and Spirographa fusisporella. A total of 77 range extensions are presented, many of which are significant discoveries, but others of which represent the first Canadian records of species that have been found to be common and widespread in adjacent regions of the United States. With regard to lichens, the parks now constitute the best-studied area of their size in Ontario. Eiglera flavida is an additional report for Bruce County not collected on the workshop; it is also new for Ontario. Of the habitats visited in the park, the shoreline cliffs and adjoining forests at Halfway Log Dump are the most rich in species (223). Flowerpot Island was almost as diverse (196). Although somewhat less diverse, the alvars (with 149 species) also contained several remarkable records and a surprising number of species.
    URL: http://sweetgum.nybg.org/webmedia.php?irn=1124570
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  • Bruggeman, I. 2013: Athelia arachnoidea, a pluriform species. - Coolia 56(4): 183-185. [RLL List # 233 / Rec.# 35028]
    Notes: In Dutch with English abstract.
    URL:
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  • Buçukoglu, T. Z./ S. Albayrak/ M. G. Halici/ T. Tay 2013: Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of extracts and lichen acids obtained from some Umbilicaria species from central Anatolia, Turkey. - Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 37(6): 1103-1110. [RLL List # 233 / Rec.# 35192]
    Keywords: 2 ,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl/ Anti-microbial activity/ Anti-oxidant activities/ Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities/ Folin-ciocalteu assays/ Free radical-scavenging activities/ Gram-positive bacterium/ Radical-scavenging activities/ Free radicals/ Yeast/ Bacteria/ Bacteria (microorganisms)/ Negibacteria/ Posibacteria/ Umbilicaria
    Abstract: In this study, the methanolic extracts and lichens acids obtained from six Umbilicaria species were tested for their antimicrobial activity (against three Gram-positive bacteria, five Gram-negative bacteria and two yeasts species) and their antioxidant activity. Total phenolic content in the extracts was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. It ranged from 0.91 to 48.25mg gallic acid/g. The antioxidant ability was measured using a free radical-scavenging activity assay using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The methanolic extracts showed moderate DPPH radical-scavenging activity. Among the lichen acids, umbilicaric acid showed the highest antioxidant activity with 68.14% inhibition. Antimicrobial activity was determined by the agar diffusion method. Extracts were found to possess antimicrobial activity against some of the bacteria and yeasts tested. Gyrophoric acid was effective against six out of eight bacteria tested, but no activity was observed against the yeasts. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4549.2012.00811.x
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  • Bungartz, F./ G. Hillmann/ K. Klaus/ J. A. Elix 2013: Leprose and leproid lichens of the Galapagos, with a particular focus on Lepraria (Stereocaulaceae) and Septotrapelia (Pilocarpaceae). - Phytotaxa 150(1): 1-28. [RLL List # 233 / Rec.# 35177]
    Keywords: Census of galapagos biodiversity/ Ecuador/ Galapagos lichen inventory/ Lepraria lendemeri sp. nov/ Leprocaulon/ Nelsenium/ Septotrapelia usnica comb.nov./ South America
    Abstract: As part of an ongoing species inventory for the Galapagos Archipelago, sterile leprose and leproid lichens have been revised. Differences between leprose vs. leproid growth forms are discussed in the light of significant recent advances in the taxonomy of Lepraria. Five species have a strictly leprose morphology: Lepraria achariana, L. aff. incana, L. finkii, and L. vouauxii (all new to Galapagos), and L. lendemeri sp. nov. A sixth species, L. tenella, forms minutely fruticose thalli, but its recent transfer from Leprocaulon into Lepraria confirms its close affinity to species with similar chemistry such as L. vouauxii. Even though L. vouauxii does not develop pseudopodetia, it forms thalli that closely resemble immature specimens of L. tenella. Fertile material of a seventh species, "Lepraria" usnica, also new to Galapagos, confirms that this species does indeed belong in the Pilocarpaceae as molecular studies previously indicated. Its apothecia are identical to those of a Septotrapelia. Consequently, the recently described genus Nelsenium is reduced to synonymy and the new combination Septotrapelia usnica proposed. Many other sterile lichens occur in Galapagos and several have a very similar, leproid or even leprose morphology. A key for all those taxa is presented, emphasizing their inconspicuous, though distinct morphological differences. © 2013 Magnolia Press.
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.150.1.1
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  • Burkin, A. A./ G. P. Kononenko 2013: Peculiarities of mycotoxin accumulation in lichens. - Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology 49(5): 521-528. [RLL List # 233 / Rec.# 34965]
    Abstract: The levels and frequencies of mycotoxin accumulation in lichens belonging to 20 genera of the families Cladoniaceae, Nephromataceae, Parmeliaceae, Peltigeraceae, Teloschistaceae, and Umbilicariaceae were characterized using enzyme immunoassay. Alternariol, sterigmatocystin, mycophenolic acid, citrinin, cyclopiazonic acid, and emodin were regularly detected in all genera, except for Peltigera, at an average level of more than 1000 ng/g (i.e., 0.0001%). The necessity for the safety monitoring of drugs based on lichen extractives is discussed. © 2013 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0003683813050037
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  • Cáceres, M. E. D. S./ D. S. Andrade/ G. K. Océa/ A. Aptroot 2013: A new Eugeniella from a small Atlantic rainforest remnant in Sergipe, NE Brazil. - Lichenologist 45(3): 367-369. [RLL List # 232 / Rec.# 34883]
    Keywords: Fazenda Cafuz/ lichen/ Mata Atlântica/ Pilocarpaceae/ Serra de Itabaiana/ taxonomy
    Abstract: The new species Eugeniella nigrodisca is described from Fazenda Cafuz, Serra de Itabaiana, Sergipe, NE Brazil, where it was found on bark. It is characterized by the clavate, consistently 7-septate ascospores. © 2013 British Lichen Society.
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0024282912000874
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  • Cáceres, M. E. D. S./ E. L. D. Lima/ A. Aptroot 2013: A new Opegrapha with submuriform ascospores from Brazil. - Lichenologist 45(3): 375-378. [RLL List # 232 / Rec.# 34881]
    Keywords: Caatinga/ Dictyographa/ Lecanographa/ lichen/ new species/ Pernambuco/ Roccellaceae/ taxonomy
    Abstract: The new species Opegrapha subdictyospora is described from NE Brazil. It is only the third species in the genus with (sub)muriform ascospores and is further characterized by the brown pruinose discs. It was collected at Vale do Catimbau National Park in Pernambuco, which is a Caatinga area, where it is locally common. © 2013 British Lichen Society.
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0024282912000850
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  • Cáceres, M. E. D. S./ V. M. Dos Santos/ D. T. De Góes/ D. A. Mota/ A. Aptroot 2013: Two new species of Malmidea from north-eastern Brazil. - Lichenologist 45(5): 619-622. [RLL List # 232 / Rec.# 34993]
    Keywords: anthraquinone/ lichens/ Malmideaceae/ Mata Atlântica/ Mata do Crasto/ Santa Luzia do Itanhy/ Serra da Jibóia
    Abstract: Two new species, Malmidea pallidoatlantica and Malmidea sulphureosorediata, are described from NE Brazil. The first is close to M. atlantica but differs by the hyaline or pale hypothecium. The second species is a bright golden yellow sorediate crust which is assigned to the genus Malmidea because it contains the same anthraquinone pigment as M. atlantica and M. pallidoatlantica. The three species together could be referred to as the Malmidea atlantica group. Both new species were found in Mata Atlântica fragments. Malmidea sulphureosorediata was found in the Serra da Jibóia, a mountain range with a maximum elevation of 800 m, in a transitional area between the Atlantic forest and Caatinga vegetation in Bahia State. Malmidea pallidoatlantica was found in Mata do Crasto, one of the most important Atlantic forest remnants in Sergipe. It is a well-preserved Mata Atlântica relict of c. 700 hectares, at sea level. Copyright © British Lichen Society 2013.
    Notes: New species: Malmidea pallidoatlantica and Malmidea sulphureosorediata.
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0024282913000248
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  • Cáceres, M. E. S./ R. Lücking 2013: Acanthothecis sarcographoides (Ascomycota: Graphidaceae), a morphologically unique, new lichen species in the Atlantic Forest of northeastern Brazil. - Acta Botanica Brasilica 27(3): 472-475. [RLL List # 232 / Rec.# 34961]
    Keywords: Mata do Crasto/ Santa Luzia do Itanhy/ Sergipe
    Abstract: A new species of Acanthothecis is described in the Atlantic Forest of northeastern Brazil. Unlike any other species in the genus, it has distinctly pseudo-stromatic ascomata that resemble those of the genus Sarcographa. However, its apically spinulose paraphyses, I-negative ascospores with thin endospore closely resemble those of other Acanthothecis species. A previous molecular phylogenetic analysis places the new species close to the type species of Acanthothecis, A. hololeucoides. The discovery of this unique new species underscores the importance of thorough biotic surveys in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil, where it is likely that many more unknown lichen species await discovery.
    Notes: New species: Acanthothecis sarcographoides M. Cáceres & Lücking.
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-33062013000300002
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  • Cadena-Castañeda, O. J. 2013: The tribe Dysoniini part II: The genus Markia (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae; Phaneropterinae), new species and some clarifications. - Zootaxa 3599(6): 501-518. [RLL List # 232 / Rec.# 34918]
    Keywords: Biodiversity/ Camouflage/ Colour polymorphism/ Lichen/ Neotropics/ Phaneropterinae/ Rainforest/ Usnea
    Abstract: This paper clarifies the status of the species of the genus Markia White, 1862, also providing new distribution data. It describes M. erinaceus from Peru, M. arizae n.sp. from the Amazonian foothills of Colombia and Ecuador, M. sarriai n.sp. from the Colombian Biogeographic Chocó, M. espinachi n.sp. from Costa Rica; as well as the true male of M. major (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1878), clarifying the real distributional range this latter species. M. longivertex n. syn., is proposed as a synonym of M. major. The colour polymorphism in M. hystrix (Westwood, 1844) is discussed and its distribution range is defined. A key to the species of Markia is provided. Copyright © 2013 Magnolia Press.
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3599.6.1
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  • Camathias, L./ A. Bergamini/ M. Küchler/ S. Stofer/ A. Baltensweiler 2013: High-resolution remote sensing data improves models of species richness. - Applied Vegetation Science 16(4): 539-551. [RLL List # 232 / Rec.# 34950]
    Keywords: Biodiversity/ Bryophytes/ Epiphytic lichens/ Hierarchical partitioning/ High-resolution digital surface and terrain models/ LiDAR/ SPOT satellite spectral imagery/ Vascular plants
    Abstract: Question: Can predictors derived from air- and space-borne high-resolution remote sensing data improve models of species richness commonly built using coarser-scaled environmental variables? Location: Switzerland, covering 41 244 km2 of Central Europe. Methods: We applied linear regressions to model species richness of woody species, herbs, edaphic bryophytes and epiphytic lichens in Swiss forests. We included high-resolution predictors derived from digital height models and from satellite spectral images. Coarser-scaled predictors characterizing climatic and topographic conditions were also included, as were soil properties and geology. We applied hierarchical partitioning to regression models to investigate the independent contribution of each predictor set to species richness models. Results: Predictors derived from high-resolution remote sensing data substantially improved the species richness models (increase 14-55% of R2). However, coarse-scaled climatic and topographic predictors still explained a high proportion of the variance in the species richness data in all models, independently of other predictors commonly used. The importance of the remotely sensed variables was strongly dependent on the biogeographic region considered. The species richness models of smaller organisms of the forest floor (herbs and edaphic bryophytes) benefited greatly from adding high-resolution topographic predictors, indicating the importance of microtopographic heterogeneity for these groups. Both epiphytic lichens and herbs responded strongly to indicators of structural properties of the forest stand. Conclusions: High-resolution remote sensing data is a proxy for micro-environmental structures and variation in these structures. Our results show that predictors derived from such data can improve species richness models considerably, especially in regions with low climatic and/or topographic variation. High-resolution remote sensing variables excellently complement coarser-scaled predictors, as they are available over large areas at low cost. © 2013 International Association for Vegetation Science.
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/avsc.12028
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  • Cameron, R./ Goudie, I./ Richardson, D. 2013: Habitat loss exceeds habitat regeneration for an IUCN flagship lichen epiphyte: Erioderma pedicellatum. - Canadian Journal of Forest Research 43(11): 1075-1080. [RLL List # 233 / Rec.# 35139]
    Keywords: Critically endangered/ Forest harvesting/ Forestry operations/ Habitat model/ Historical data/ Modeling process/ Satellite data/ Suitable habitat/ Felt/ Felts/ Fungi/ Harvesting/ Reforestation/ Timber/ Ecosystems/ boreal forest/ endangered species/ habitat conservation/ habitat loss/ habitat structure/ habitat type/ human activity/ lichen/ numerical model/ Felts/ Forestry/ Harvesting/ Lichens/ Nova Scotia/ Reforestation/ Satellites/ Canada/ Nova Scotia
    Abstract: The boreal felt lichen (Erioderma pedicellatum. (Hue) P.M. J0rg.) is globally critically endangered, being threatened by forestry operations, habitat disturbance, and air pollution. To determine if loss of habitat due to forestry activities has occurred in Nova Scotia, a predictive habitat model was built using historical data from 1988. Satellite data were used for the period between 1987 and 2005 to determine the amount of suitable habitat harvested during this period. Available habitat was modeled through time from 1988 to 2005 in which area harvested was subtracted and regeneration was added in 3- to 5-year time steps. The predicted suitable boreal felt lichen habitat area was then modeled from 2005 to 2055 using the same harvesting assumptions and modeling process, but using 10-year time steps. The results of the model indicated that there has been a loss of 2311 ha (11.5%) in the amount of predicted suitable boreal felt lichen habitat between 1988 and 2005. A forward-projected drop is predicted between 2005 and 2055 that will amount to 4499 ha (25.4%), assuming no change in forest harvesting. Protection of unoccupied habitat surrounding existing boreal felt is recommended.
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjfi-2013-0024
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  • Campbell, J./ P. Bengtson/ A. L. Fredeen/ D. S. Coxson/ C. E. Prescott 2013: Does exogenous carbon extend the realized niche of canopy lichens? Evidence from sub-boreal forests in British Columbia. - Ecology 94(5): 1186-1195. [RLL List # 232 / Rec.# 34898]
    Keywords: 13C-glucose/ Cyanolichen/ Fatty acid/ Niche/ Populus overstory/ Symbiosis
    Abstract: Foliose lichens with cyanobacterial bionts (bipartite and tripartite) form a distinct assemblage of epiphytes strongly associated with humid microclimatic conditions in inland British Columbia. Previous research showed that these cyano- and cephalolichen communities are disproportionately abundant and species-rich on conifer saplings beneath Populus compared to beneath other tree species. More revealing, lichens with cyanobacterial bionts were observed beneath Populus even in stands that did not otherwise support them. We experimentally test the hypothesis that this association is due to the interception of glucoserich nectar that is exuded from Populus extra-floral nectaries (EFN). Using CO2 flux measurements and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis with experimental applications of 13C6-labeled glucose, we demonstrate that cyano- and cephalolichens have a strong respiratory response to glucose. Lichens treated with glucose had lower net photosynthesis and higher establishment rates than control thalli. Furthermore, lichens with cyanobacterial bionts rapidly incorporate exogenous 13C into lichen fatty acid tissues. A large proportion of the 13C taken up by the lichens was incorporated into fungal biomarkers, suggesting that the mycobiont absorbed and assimilated the majority of applied 13C6 glucose. Our observations suggest that both cyanolichens and cephalolichens may utilize an exogenous source of glucose, made available by poplar EFNs. The exogenous C may enable these lichens to become established by providing a source of C for fungal respiration despite drought-induced inactivity of the cyanobacterial partner. As such, the mycobiont may adopt an alternative nutritional strategy, using available exogenous carbon to extend its realized niche. © 2013 by the Ecological Society of America.
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/12-1857.1
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  • Carballal, R. 2013: The genus Roccella in the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands. - Botanica Complutensis 37: 13-20. [RLL List # 233 / Rec.# 35146]
    Keywords: Balearic Islands/ Iberian Peninsula/ Lichens/ Roccella
    Abstract: The morphological, anatomical, chemical and geographical data of 6 species of genus Roccella is reported from the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands. An identification key based in macroscopic characters and chemical reactions is presented. Roccella elisabethae is recorded for the first time from continental Europe.
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.5209/rev-BOCM.2013.v37.42263
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  • Catalá, M./ F. Gasulla/ A. E. Pradas Del Real/ F. García-Breijo/ J. Reig-Armiñana/ E. Barreno 2013: The organic air pollutant cumene hydroperoxide interferes with NO antioxidant role in rehydrating lichen. - Environmental Pollution 179: 277-284. [RLL List # 232 / Rec.# 34896]
    Keywords: Lichens/ Nitric oxide/ ROS/ Trebouxia/ Volatile organic pollutants
    Abstract: Organic pollutants effects on lichens have not been addressed. Rehydration is critical for lichens, a burst of free radicals involving NO occurs. Repeated dehydrations with organic pollutants could increase oxidative damage. Our aim is to learn the effects of cumene hydroperoxide (CP) during lichen rehydration using Ramalina farinacea (L.) Ach., its photobiont Trebouxia spp. and Asterochloris erici. Confocal imaging shows intracellular ROS and NO production within myco and phycobionts, being the chloroplast the main source of free radicals. CP increases ROS, NO and lipid peroxidation and reduces chlorophyll autofluorescence, although photosynthesis remains unaffected. Concomitant NO inhibition provokes a generalized increase of ROS and a decrease in photosynthesis. Our results suggest that CP induces a compensatory hormetic response in Ramalina farinacea that could reduce the lichen's antioxidant resources after repeated desiccation-rehydration cycles. NO is important in the protection from CP. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2013.04.015
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  • Çobanoglu G./ B. Açikgöz/ L. Baloniu 2013: Contributions to lichen diversity of Turkey from the Sarisu area (Kocaeli). - Turkish Journal of Botany 37(5): 964-969. [RLL List # 232 / Rec.# 34963]
    Keywords: Biodiversity/ Biota/ Kocaeli/ Lichenised fungi/ biota/ identification method/ lichen/ new record/ species diversity/ taxonomy/ Turkey
    Abstract: A total of 85 lichen taxa from the Sarisu area of the district of Kandi{dotless}ra in Kocaeli Province were listed. Three new records for the biota of Turkey, Coenogonium pineti (Ach.) Lücking & Lumbsch, Lecania cuprea (A.Massal.) Van den Boom & Coppins, and Opegrapha calcarea Turner ex Sm., have been identified within the context of this study along with 81 new taxa for the province of Kocaeli. © TÜB?TAK.
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.3906/bot-1207-23
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  • Çolak, S./ F. Geyikoglu/ H. Türkez/ T.-Bakir/ A. Aslan 2013: The ameliorative effect of Cetraria islandica against diabetes-induced genetic and oxidative damage in human blood. - Pharmaceutical Biology 51(12): 1531-1537. [RLL List # 233 / Rec.# 35141]
    Keywords: Diabetes mellitus/ Genotoxicity/ Human blood cultures/ Lichen/ Oxidative stress/ catalase/ cell nucleus DNA/ Cetraria islandica extract/ glutathione peroxidase/ lichen extract/ malonaldehyde/ plant extract/ superoxide dismutase/ unclassified drug/ adolescent/ adult/ antioxidant activity/ article/ blood sampling/ cell viability/ cellular parameters/ child/ controlled study/ culture medium/ DNA damage/ drug determination/ drug efficacy/ enzyme activity/ erythrocyte/ erythrocyte culture/ genomic instability/ human/ in vitro study/ insulin dependent diabetes mellitus/ lichen islandicus/ lymphocyte culture/ medicinal plant/ oxidative stress/ peripheral lymphocyte/ proliferation index/ protein blood level/ school child
    Abstract: Context: The aqueous extracts of Cetraria islandica (L.) Ach. (Parmeliaceae) is traditionally used in many countries against a number of conditions, including inflammatory conditions. Objective: The present study aimed to assess, for the first time, the effectiveness of C. islandica in cultured primary blood cells of Type 1 diabetes subjects. Materials and methods: Diabetic and control blood samples were treated with or without aqueous lichen extract (5 and 10 ?g mL-1) for 48 h. The activity of antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes and also malondialdehyde levels in plasma were determined to evaluate the oxidative status. DNA damages were analyzed by SCE, MN and comet assays in cultured human lymphocytes. Additionally, proliferation index (PI) was evaluated in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Results: There were significant increases in observed total DNA damage (comet assay) (240.2%) and SCE (168.8%), but not in MN frequencies of cultures with diabetes as compared (p > 0.05) to controls. Whereas, the significant reductions of total DNA damage (69.2 and 65.3%) and SCE frequencies (17.7 and 12.3%) were determined when the 5 and 10 mg mL-1 lichen extract was added to the cell culture medium, respectively. However, lichen extract did not completely inhibit the induction of SCEs in lymphocytes of patients with diabetes. C. islandica extract was also useful on PI rates. Discussion: In conclusion, the antioxidant role of C. islandica in alleviating diabetes-induced genomic instability and for increasing cell viability was firstly indicated in the present study. 2013 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/13880209.2013.801994
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  • Celenza, G./ B. Segatore/ D. Setacci/ M. Perilli/ F. Brisdelli/ P. Bellio/ M. Piovano/ J. A. Garbarino/ G. Amicosante/ M. Nicoletti 2013: Antibacterial activity of selected metabolites from Chilean lichen species against methicillin-resistant Staphylococci. - Natural Product Research 27(17): 1528-1531. [RLL List # 232 / Rec.# 34943]
    Keywords: Antibacterial activity/ Antimicrobial resistance/ Lichen secondary metabolites/ Methicillin-resistant staphylococci
    Abstract: The in vitro antibacterial activities of eight compounds isolated from lichens, collected in several Southern regions of Chile (including Antarctica), were evaluated against methicillin-resistant clinical isolates strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus warneri. The minimum inhibitory concentrations, calculated in microdilution, were ranging from 8 mgmL1 for sphaerophorin to 1024 mgmL1 for fumarprotocetraric acid. These findings suggest, however, that the natural compounds from lichens are good candidates for the individuation of novel templates for the development of new antimicrobial agents or combinations of drugs for chemotherapy. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2012.730043
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  • Cheon, D. -M./ D. S. Jang/ H. Y. Kim/ K. S. Choi/ S. K. Choi 2013: Detection of antifungal endolichenic fungi and antifungal compound. - Korean Journal of Microbiology 49(2): 165-171. [RLL List # 232 / Rec.# 34951]
    Keywords: 14-octadecenoic acid-methyl ester/ Antifungal/ Endolichenic fungi/ Hexadecanonic acid-methyl ester/ Stereocaulon sp.
    Abstract: To isolate a novel antifungal compound, we obtained 571 kinds of endolichenic fungi from Lichen Bioresources Center and examined their antifungal abilities. Four fungi Stereocaulon sp. (1429), Stereocaulon sp. (1430), Cryptosporiopsis sp. (0156), and Graphis sp. (1245) showed high antifungal activity against Candida albicans when they grew in both liquid and solid media. We extracted the culture supernatants of these fungi with chloroform and then ethyl acetate. The chloroform fraction exhibited the highest anti-fungal activities when those fractions were examined for the growth inhibition of Candida albicans with disc diffusion method. To see information for the inhibitor present in chloroform fraction we employed GC-MS for the fractions of Stereocaulon sp. (1429). We found that hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane, decanoic acid, hexadecanonic acid-methyl ester, 14-octadecenoic acid-methyl ester, and octadecenoic acid-methyl ester were present more in chloroform fraction than in ethylacetate fraction. This indicates that those compounds could be possible antifungal candidates since antifungal activity of chloroform extract was two times higher than that of ethyl acetate extract. © 2013, The Microbiological Society of Korea.
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.7845/kjm.2013.3023
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  • Cordeiro, L. M. C./ F. Beilke./ V. De Fátima Reinhardt/ G. L. Sassaki/ M. Iacomini 2013: Rhamnogalactofuranan from the microalga Myrmecia biatorellae, symbiotic partner of Lobaria linita. - Phytochemistry 94: 254-259. [RLL List # 233 / Rec.# 35074]
    Keywords: Lichen/ Lobaria linita/ Myrmecia biatorellae/ Polysaccharide/ Rhamnogalactofuranan/ Symbiotic microalgae
    Abstract: A structural study of the cell wall polysaccharides of Myrmecia biatorellae, the symbiotic algal partner of the lichenized fungus Lobaria linita was carried out. It produced a cold-water insoluble rhamnogalactofuranan, with a (1?3)-linked ?-D-galactofuranosyl main-chain, substituted at O-6 by single units of ?-D-Galf, or by side-chains of 2-O- and 2,4-di-O-linked ?-L-Rhap units. The structure of the polysaccharide was established by chemical and NMR spectroscopic analysis. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2013.06.008
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  • Czarnota, P./ E. Hernik 2013: Mniaecia jungermanniae and Puttea margaritella (lichenized Ascomycota) found in Poland. - Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae 82(2): 175-179. [RLL List # 233 / Rec.# 34954]
    Keywords: Bryosymbionts/ Endophytes/ Gorce range/ Lichens/ Liverworts/ National park/ Symbiosis/ Tatra Mts
    Abstract: Two hepaticolous fungi, Mniaecia jungermanniae and Puttea margaritella rarely recorded in Europe have recently been found in Polish Western Carpathians. Both species are also reported here for the first time from Poland. Notes on their taxonomy, ecology and distribution are provided. © 2013 The Author(s).
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.5586/asbp.2013.014
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  • Dal-Forno, M./ J. D. Lawrey/ M. Sikaroodi/ S. Bhattarai/ P. M. Gillevet/ M. Sulzbacher/ R. Lücking 2013: Starting from scratch: Evolution of the lichen thallus in the basidiolichen Dictyonema (Agaricales: Hygrophoraceae). - Fungal Biology 117(9): 584-598. [RLL List # 232 / Rec.# 34966]
    Keywords: Basidiocarp/ Basidiolichens/ Cyanolichens/ Mushrooms
    Abstract: Phylogenetic studies indicate that the basidiolichen genus Dictyonema s.lat., often thought to represent only a single genus with few species, includes several well-supported genus-level clades, all of which form associations with a unique lineage of obligately lichenized cyanobacteria (Rhizonema). In an attempt to elucidate the evolution and genus- and species-level diversification in Dictyonema s.lat., we generated 68 new sequences of the nuclear large subunit rDNA (nuLSU), the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), and the RNA polymerase II subunit (RPB2), for 29 species-level lineages representing all major clades of Dictyonema s.lat. and most of the species currently known. The multilocus phylogeny obtained via maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches indicates the presence of five genus-level groups: a basal clade, Cyphellostereum, that is sister to the rest of the species, a paraphyletic grade representing Dictyonema s.str., and three clades representing the genera Acantholichen, Cora, and Corella. To determine the evolutionary transformations of the lichenized thallus in the group, ancestral character state reconstruction was done using six characters (lichenisation, thallus type, cortex type, hyphal sheath and haustorial type, photobiont morphology, and basidiocarp type). Our analysis indicates a progressive development of the lichenized thallus from loosely organized filamentous crusts with separate, cyphelloid basidiocarps in Cyphellostereum, to filamentous crusts with derived hyphal sheath and cyphelloid-stereoid basidiocarps partially incorporated into the lichen thallus in Dictyonema, to squamulose-foliose thalli with corticioid basidiocarps entirely supported by the lichen thallus in Cora. These results indicate a remarkable evolutionary integration of lichenized and reproductive tissues in Dictyonema s.lat., supporting the hypothesis that, at least in this case, lichenized thalli may have evolved from reproductive structures in their nonlichenized ancestors. © 2013 The British Mycological Society.
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.funbio.2013.05.006
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  • De La Rosa, J. P. M./ P. A. Warke/ B. J. Smith 2013: Lichen-induced biomodification of calcareous surfaces: Bioprotection versus biodeterioration. - Progress in Physical Geography 37(3): 325-351. [RLL List # 232 / Rec.# 34920]
    Keywords: biodeterioration/ biomodification/ bioprotection/ calcareous rocks/ calcium oxalate/ lichen/ non-linear dynamical systems/ thalline shielding/ weathering
    Abstract: Studies demonstrate the active and passive capability of lichens to inhibit or retard the weathering of calcareous surfaces. Lichen coverage may actively protect a surface through shielding by the thallus and the binding and waterproofing of the rock surface and subsurface by fungal hyphae. Passive protection of rock surfaces may be induced by the formation of an insoluble encrustation, such as calcium oxalate, at the lichen-rock interface. Recent research suggests that the decay of hyphae, induced by changes in microenvironmental conditions, necrosis, parasitism or the natural physiological traits of particular lichen species, may expose a chemically and physically weakened substrate to dissolution, triggering relatively rapid weathering-related surface lowering. Consequently, certain epilithic crustose and endolithic lichens may induce a period of surface stability throughout the course of their lifespan, followed by a phase of instability and rapid episodic microtopographical evolution after death and decay. A series of conceptual models is proposed to illustrate this idea over short (single lichen lifespan) and long (multiple lichen lifespans) timescales. The models suggest that the microscale biogeomorphological system of lichen-rock interaction is underpinned by non-linear dynamical system theory as it exhibits dynamical instability and is consequently difficult to predict over a long timescale. Dominance by biodeterioration or bioprotection may be altered by changes in lichen species or in environmental conditions over time. © The Author(s) 2012.
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0309133312467660
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  • De Vasconcelos, T. L./ E. C. Pereira/ N. H. Da Silva/ C. Vicente/ M. E. Legaz 2013: Intracellular urease activity in the lichen Cladonia verticillaris, and its implication for toxicity. - Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 98: 310-316. [RLL List # 233 / Rec.# 35132]
    Keywords: Ammonium/ Lichens/ Phenolics/ Protection/ Toxicity/ Urease/ ammonia/ urease/ alga/ ammonia/ ammonium/ bacterium/ concentration (composition)/ fertilizer application/ hydrolysis/ lichen/ phenolic compound/ toxicity/ urea/ article/ Brazil/ cell surface/ Cladonia/ Cladonia verticillaris/ controlled study/ cytochemistry/ enzyme activity/ enzyme release/ fertilization/ fungus isolation/ hydrolysis/ intercellular space/ nonhuman/ thallus/ Viridiplantae/ algae/ Cladonia verticillaris/ Saccharum
    Abstract: Urea is currently used as a nitrogen fertilizer in many plant cultures, such as sugar cane. Several lichen species grow in the edges of the fields fertilized with urea. This implies that the hydrolysis of an excess of urea by soil bacteria or by the lichens themselves would increase the concentration of ammonia in the lichen thallus to a level that may be toxic to the photobiont. However, Cladonia verticillaris produces urease through positive feedback by urea supplied from the medium. This urease is partially secreted to the media or retained on the external surface of algal cells, as demonstrated herein by an adequate cytochemical reaction. This implies that ammonia produced by urea hydrolysis will be immediately dissolved in the water filling the intercellular spaces on the thallus. A possible protection mechanism against eventual ammonia toxicity, derived from the results described here, is also discussed. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2013.10.001
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  • Delgado-Baquerizo, M./ L. Morillas/ F. T. Maestre/ A. Gallardo 2013: Biocrusts control the nitrogen dynamics and microbial functional diversity of semi-arid soils in response to nutrient additions. - Plant and Soil 372(1-2): 643-654. [RLL List # 233 / Rec.# 35159]
    Keywords: Carbon/ Dissolved organic N/ Mineralization/ Phosphorus/ Shannon-Weaver diversity index/ biome/ biotransformation/ dominance/ microbial community/ mineralization/ nitrogen/ nitrogen fixation/ nutrient/ phosphorus/ resilience/ semiarid region/ soil/ Spain/ Bryophyta/ Cyanobacteria
    Abstract: Aims: Human activities are causing imbalances in the nutrient cycles in natural ecosystems. However, we have limited knowledge of how these changes will affect the soil microbial functional diversity and the nitrogen (N) cycle in drylands, the biggest biome on Earth. Communities dominated by lichens, mosses and cyanobacteria (biocrusts) influence multiple processes from the N cycle such as N fixation and mineralization rates. We evaluated how biocrusts modulate the effects of different N, carbon (C) and phosphorus (P) additions on theN availability, the dominance of different available N forms and the microbial functional diversity in dryland soils. Methods: Soil samples from bare ground (BG) and biocrust-dominated areas were gathered from the center of Spain and incubated during seven or 21 days under different combinations of N, C and P additions (N, C, P, N + C, N + P, P + C, and C + N + P). Results: The relative dominance of dissolved organic N (DON) and the microbial functional diversity were higher in biocrust than in BG microsites when C or P were added. Changes in the C to N ratio, more than N availability, seem to modulate N transformation processes in the soils studied. In general, biocrusts increased the resilience to N impacts (N, C + N, N + P, C + N + P) of the total available N, ammonium, nitrate and DON when C was present. Conclusions: Our results suggest that biocrusts may buffer the effects of changes in nutrient ratios on microbial functional diversity and DON dominance in dryland soils. Thus, these organisms may have an important role in increasing the resilience of the N cycle to imbalances in C, N and P derived from human activities. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11104-013-1779-9
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  • Del-Prado, R./ O. Blanco/ H. T. Lumbsch/ P. K. Divakar/ J. A. Elix/ M. C. Molina/ A. Crespo. 2013: Molecular phylogeny and historical biogeography of the lichen-forming fungal genus Flavoparmelia (Ascomycota: Parmeliaceae). - Taxon 62(5): 928-939. [RLL List # 233 / Rec.# 35147]
    Keywords: Ancestral areas/ Distribution/ Lichens/ Long-distance dispersal/ Parmelioid lichens/ Phylogeny/ Southern hemisphere/ Vicariance/ biogeography/ data set/ dispersal/ divergence/ DNA/ lichen/ phylogeny/ Southern Hemisphere/ vicariance/ South America
    Abstract: The lichen-forming fungal genus Flavoparmelia includes species with distinct distribution patterns, including subcosmopolitan, restricted, and disjunct species. We used a dataset of nuclear ITS and LSU ribosomal DNA including 51 specimens to understand the influence of historical events on the current distribution patterns in the genus. We employed Bayesian, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony approaches for phylogenetic analyses, a likelihood-based approach to ancestral area reconstruction, and a Bayesian approach to estimate divergence times of major lineages within the genus. We identified two major clades in the genus, one of them separating into two subclades and one of those into four groups. Several of the groups and clades have restricted geographical ranges in the Southern Hemisphere, but two groups include species with wider distribution areas. Our analyses suggest that the genus originated in southern South America during the Eocene-Oligocene transition and that the diversification of the Australasian groups occurred recently. The subcosmopolitan distribution of species is explained by long-distance dispersal, while vicariance probably played a major role in the origin of the genus. Several currently accepted species were found to be non-monophyletic, indicating that the species delimitation in the genus requires further studies.
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.12705/625.22
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  • Deluca, T. H./ O. Zackrisson/ I. Bergman/ G. Hörnberg 2013: Historical land use and resource depletion in spruce-Cladina forests of subarctic Sweden. - Anthropocene 1: 14-22. [RLL List # 233 / Rec.# 35145]
    Keywords: Boreal forest ecosystems/ Ecosystem degradation/ Fire/ Nitrogen/ Nutrient depletion/ Paleoecology/ bog/ charcoal/ community composition/ concentration (composition)/ coniferous forest/ disturbance/ forest ecosystem/ forest fire/ Holocene/ land use change/ lichen/ mixed forest/ nitrogen fixation/ nutrient availability/ nutrient limitation/ paleoecology/ pollen/ regeneration/ resource availability/ subarctic region/ Sweden
    Abstract: Historical and repeated use of fire is thought to be responsible for poor forest regeneration on Norway spruce (Picea abies L.)-lichen (Cladina spp.) forests of subarctic Sweden; however, the role of nutrient limitation in this process has not been studied. Studies were performed on three paired stands of open spruce-Cladina forests and un-disturbed, Norway spruce-Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.)-feathermoss forests to evaluate whether repeated use of fire in ancient times led to depletion of nutrient resources which altered forest regeneration. All pairs were analyzed for vegetative composition, soil nutrient capital and availability, and total soil organic matter. Peat cores collected in neighboring bogs were used for pollen analyses. Spruce-Cladina forests were found to have significantly reduced N capital and little N2 fixation capacity. Spruce-Cladina forests had lower concentrations of mineral soil P compared to reference forests. Pollen records suggest that these sites were historically mixed spruce, pine forests, but under the influence of recurrent fire exhibited a marked peak in charcoal occurrence at about 550 calibrated years BP and a decrease in tree pollen accumulation at circa 500 calibrated years BP. Carbon dating of charcoal in hearths located on the three sites place regular human occupation of this from circa 600-300 calibrated years BP. The open spruce-Cladina forests of subarctic Sweden are likely a product of recurrent use of fire by humans. By adopting a long-term perspective it is possible to understand land-use legacies even in remote ecosystems that are considered "natural" today. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ancene.2013.03.002
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  • Dent, J. M./ T. J. Curran/ A. Rafat/ H. L. Buckley 2013: Microhabitat variation in Usnea biomass on mountain beech in Nina Valley, New Zealand. - New Zealand Journal of Botany 51(4): 328-333. [RLL List # 233 / Rec.# 35170]
    Keywords: Nothofagus solandri var. cliffortioides
    Abstract: Microhabitat variation at a tree level results in the patchy distribution of epiphytic lichens. Our study examined how this microhabitat variation affects the biomass of all Usnea species on the main trunk of a tree up to 2 m in height. Total Usnea biomass and microhabitat data were collected from 48 mountain beech (Nothofagus solandri var. cliffortioides) trees from four different sites in the Nina Valley, South Island, New Zealand. Variation in total Usnea biomass was related to tree-level microenvironmental variables using a linear mixed-effects model. Biomass was positively related to minimum bark depth and negatively to canopy cover, but was unrelated to tree diameter, distance to nearest occupied tree and the per cent cover of sooty mould and bryophytes. These results suggest that epiphytic Usnea on mountain beech trees prefer thicker, textured bark in high-light environments. © 2013 The Royal Society of New Zealand.
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0028825X.2013.825633
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  • Ding, L. P./ Q. M. Zhou/ J. C. Wei 2013: Estimation of Endocarpon pusillum Hedwig carbon budget in the Tengger Desert based on its photosynthetic rate. - Science China Life Sciences 56(9): 848-855. [RLL List # 232 / Rec.# 34987]
    Keywords: carbon income/ carbon loss/ carbon sink/ carpet-like lichen/ crust organisms/ Endocarpon
    Abstract: This study investigated the photosynthetic rate of the lichen Endocarpon pusillum at the Chinese Academy of Sciences Shapotou Desert Research Station and estimated its annual contribution to the carbon budget in the ecosystem. The software SigmaPlot 10.0 with "Macro-Area below curves" was used to calculate the carbon fixation capacity of the lichen. The total carbon budget (?C) of the lichen was obtained by subtracting the respiratory carbon loss (?DR) from the photosynthetic carbon gain (?NP). Because water from precipitation plays an important role in photosynthesis in this ecosystem, the annual carbon budget of E. pusillum at the station was estimated based on the three-year average precipitation data from 2009 to 2011. Our results indicate that the lichen fixes 14.6 g C m-2 annually. The results suggest that artificial inoculation of the crust lichen in the Tengger Desert could not only help reduce the sand and dust storms but also offer a significant carbon sink, fixing a total of 438000 t of carbon over the 30000 km2 of the Tengger Desert. The carbon sink could potentially help mitigate the atmospheric greenhouse effect. Our study suggests that the carpet-like lichen E. pusillum is an excellent candidate for "Bio-carpet Engineering" of arid and semi-arid regions. © 2013 The Author(s).
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11427-013-4526-9
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  • Dittrich, S./ M. Hauck/ D. Schweigatz/ I. Dörfler/ R. Hühne/ C. Bade/ M. Jacob/ C. Leuschner 2013: Separating forest continuity from tree age effects on plant diversity in the ground and epiphyte vegetation of a Central European mountain spruce forest. - Flora: Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants 208(4): 238-246. [RLL List # 232 / Rec.# 34912]
    Keywords: Bryophytes/ Lichens/ Old-growth forest/ Secondary forest/ Species diversity/ age/ atmospheric pollution/ bryophyte/ colonization/ coniferous forest/ elevation/ epiphyte/ lichen/ montane forest/ old-growth forest/ secondary forest/ species diversity/ twentieth century/ Germany/ Harz Mountains/ Bryophyta/ bryophytes/ Picea/ Picea engelmannii
    Abstract: Forest continuity has been identified as an important factor influencing the structure and diversity of forest vegetation. Primary forests with centuries of continuity are usually more diverse than young secondary forests as forest are colonized only slowly and because the former are richer in old tree individuals. In the present study, performed in unmanaged high-elevation spruce forests of the Harz Mountains, Germany, we had the unique opportunity to separate the effects of forest continuity and tree age on plant diversity. We compared an old-growth spruce forest with century-long habitat continuity with an adjacent secondary spruce forest, which had naturally established on a former bog after 1796 when peat exploitation halted. Comparative analysis of the ground and epiphyte vegetation showed that the plant diversity of the old-growth forest was not higher than that of the secondary forest with a similar tree age of >200 years. Our results suggest that a period of >200 years was sufficient for the secondary forest to be colonized by the whole regional species pool of herbaceous and cryptogam forest plants and epiphytes. Therefore, it is likely that habitat structure, including the presence of old and decaying trees, was more important for determining plant diversity than the independent effect of forest continuity. Our results are probably not transferrable to spruce forests younger than 200 years and highly fragmented woodlands with long distances between new stands and old-growth forests that serve as diaspore sources. In addition, our results might be not transferable to remote areas without notable air pollution, as the epiphyte vegetation of the study area was influenced by SO2 pollution in the second half of the 20th century. © 2013 Elsevier GmbH.
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.flora.2013.03.006
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  • Divakar, P. K./ A. Crespo/ J. Núñez-Zapata/ A. Flakus/ H. J. M. Sipman/ J. A. Elix/ H. T. Lumbsch 2013: A molecular perspective on generic concepts in the Hypotrachyna clade (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota). - Phytotaxa 132(1): 21-38. [RLL List # 232 / Rec.# 34945]
    Keywords: Generic classification/ Lichens/ Molecular systematics/ Parmelioid lichens/ Taxonomy
    Abstract: Recently, molecular phylogenetic studies have revolutionized the generic concepts in Parmeliaceae and in lichen forming fungi in general. In the present study, the generic delimitation in the Hypotrachyna clade is revised using a molecular phylogeny of nuclear ITS, LSU and mitochondrial SSU rDNA sequences of 88 hypotrachynoid taxa. Morphological and chemical features are also revised in each group. 118 sequences are newly generated for this study. Our phylogenetic analyses show the polyphyly of Hypotrachyna as currently circumscribed which falls into four well-supported and one unsupported clade. Cetrariastrum, Everniastrum and Parmelinopsis are nested within Hypotrachyna s. lat., Parmelinopsis being also polyphyletic and nested in one of the Hypotrachyna clades. Cetrariastrum is monophyletic but clustered within Everniastrum. Two alternative hypotheses tests significantly rejected the monophyly of these three genera. As a consequence, the genera Cetrariastrum, Everniastrum, and Parmelinopsis are reduced to synonymy with Hypotrachyna. Furthermore, we here propose an alternative classification to recognize the well-supported clades at subgeneric level and leave the remaining species unclassified within the genus. Five new subgenera are proposed: Hypotrachyna subgen. Cetrariastrum, Hypotrachyna subgen. Everniastrum, Hypotrachyna subgen. Longilobae, Hypotrachyna subgen. Parmelinopsis, and Hypotrachyna subgen. Sinuosae. Forty-nine new combinations are proposed. © 2013 Magnolia Press.
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.132.1.2
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  • Divakar, P. K./ F. Kauff/ A. Crespo/ S. D. Leavitt/ H. T. Lumbsch 2013: Understanding phenotypical character evolution in parmelioid lichenized fungi (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) . - PLoS ONE 8(11): e83115. [RLL List # 234 / Rec.# 35248]
    Abstract: Parmelioid lichens form a species-rich group of predominantly foliose and fruticose lichenized fungi encompassing a broad range of morphological and chemical diversity. Using a multilocus approach, we reconstructed a phylogeny including 323 OTUs of parmelioid lichens and employed ancestral character reconstruction methods to understand the phenotypical evolution within this speciose group of lichen-forming fungi. Specifically, we were interested in the evolution of growth form, epicortex structure, and cortical chemistry. Since previous studies have shown that results may differ depending on the reconstruction method used, here we employed both maximum-parsimony and maximum-likelihood approaches to reconstruct ancestral character states. We have also implemented binary and multistate coding of characters and performed parallel analyses with both coding types to assess for potential coding-based biases. We reconstructed the ancestral states for nine well-supported major clades in the parmelioid group, two higher-level sister groups and the ancestral character state for all parmelioid lichens. We found that different methods for coding phenotypical characters and different ancestral character state reconstruction methods mostly resulted in identical reconstructions but yield conflicting inferences of ancestral states, in some cases. However, we found support for the ancestor of parmelioid lichens having been a foliose lichen with a non-pored epicortex and pseudocyphellae. Our data suggest that some traits exhibit patterns of evolution consistent with adaptive radiation.
    – doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0083115

    URL:
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  • Domaschke, S./ M. Vivas/ L. G. Sancho/ C. Printzen 2013: Ecophysiology and genetic structure of polar versus temperate populations of the lichen Cetraria aculeata. - Oecologia 173(3): 699-709. [RLL List # 233 / Rec.# 35156]
    Keywords: Acclimation/ Cetrariaaculeata/ Genetic adaptation/ Lichens/ Photosynthesis/ Trebouxiajamesii/ acclimation/ chlorophyll/ ecophysiology/ genetic structure/ lichen/ photosynthesis/ population structure/ temperate environment/ temperature effect/ Antarctica/ Arctic/ Europe/ Svalbard/ Svalbard and Jan Mayen/ algae/ Cetraria aculeata
    Abstract: We studied polar and temperate samples of the lichen Cetraria aculeata to investigate whether genetical differences between photobionts are correlated with physiological properties of the lichen holobiont. Net photosynthesis and dark respiration (DR) at different temperatures (from 0 to 30 °C) and photon flux densities (from 0 to 1,200 ?mol m-2 s-1) were studied for four populations of Cetraria aculeata. Samples were collected from maritime Antarctica, Svalbard, Germany and Spain, representing different climatic situations. Sequencing of the photobiont showed that the investigated samples fall in the polar and temperate clade described in Fernández-Mendoza et al. (Mol Ecol 20:1208-1232, 2011). Lichens with photobionts from these clades differ in their temperature optimum for photosynthesis, maximal net photosynthesis, maximal DR and chlorophyll content. Maximal net photosynthesis was much lower in Antarctica and Svalbard than in Germany and Spain. The difference was smaller when rates were expressed by chlorophyll content. The same is true for the temperature optima of polar (11 °C) and temperate (15 and 17 °C) lichens. Our results indicate that lichen mycobionts may adapt or acclimate to local environmental conditions either by selecting algae from regional pools or by regulating algal cell numbers (chlorophyll content) within the thallus. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00442-013-2670-3
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  • Duarte, A. W. F./ I. Dayo-Owoyemi/ F. S. Nobre/ F. C. Pagnocca/ L. C. S. Chaud/ A. Pessoa/ M. G. A. Felipe/ L. D. Sette 2013: Taxonomic assessment and enzymes production by yeasts isolated from marine and terrestrial Antarctic samples. - Extremophiles 17(6): 1023-1035. [RLL List # 233 / Rec.# 35158]
    Keywords: Antarctic/ Biodiversity/ Biotechnology/ Cold-active enzymes/ Yeast
    Abstract: The aim of the present study was to investigate the taxonomic identity of yeasts isolated from the Antarctic continent and to evaluate their ability to produce enzymes (lipase, protease and xylanase) at low and moderate temperatures. A total of 97 yeast strains were recovered from marine and terrestrial samples collected in the Antarctica. The highest amount of yeast strains was obtained from marine sediments, followed by lichens, ornithogenic soils, sea stars, Salpa sp., algae, sea urchin, sea squirt, stone with lichens, Nacella concinna, sea sponge, sea isopod and sea snail. Data from polyphasic taxonomy revealed the presence of 21 yeast species, distributed in the phylum Ascomycota (n = 8) and Basidiomycota (n = 13). Representatives of encapsulated yeasts, belonging to genera Rhodotorula and Cryptococcus were recovered from 7 different Antarctic samples. Moreover, Candida glaebosa, Cryptococcus victoriae, Meyerozyma (Pichia) guilliermondii, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and R. laryngis were the most abundant yeast species recovered. This is the first report of the occurrence of some species of yeasts recovered from Antarctic marine invertebrates. Additionally, results from enzymes production at low/moderate temperatures revealed that the Antarctic environment contains metabolically diverse cultivable yeasts, which could be considered as a target for biotechnological applications. Among the evaluated yeasts in the present study 46.39, 37.11 and 14.43 % were able to produce lipase (at 15 °C), xylanase (at 15 °C) and protease (at 25 °C), respectively. The majority of lipolytic, proteolytic and xylanolytic strains were distributed in the phylum Basidiomycota and were mainly recovered from sea stars, lichens, sea urchin and marine sediments. © 2013 Springer Japan.
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00792-013-0584-y
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  • Edwards, D./ L. Axe/ R. Honegger 2013: Contributions to the diversity in cryptogamic covers in the mid-Palaeozoic: Nematothallus revisited. - Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 173(4): 505-534. [RLL List # 233 / Rec.# 35109]
    Keywords: Algae/ Bryophytes/ Cosmochlaina/ Embryophytes/ Fungi/ Lichens/ Lochkovian/ Prototaxites/ Weathering/ Welsh Borderland/ alga/ biodiversity/ Devonian/ fossil record/ lichen/ new species/ Paleozoic/ Silurian/ species diversity/ taxonomy/ three-dimensional modeling/ weathering/ United Kingdom/ algae/ Bryophyta/ bryophytes/ Cosmochlaina/ Embryophyta/ Fungi/ Spongiophyton/ Tracheophyta
    Abstract: Compression fossils from the Silurian and Devonian of southern Britain, composed of cuticles and tubes, were described by W. H. Lang as the genus Nematothallus and placed, with Prototaxites, in Nematophytales, related neither to algae nor tracheophytes. Dispersed cuticles of Nematothallus and perforated forms assigned to Cosmochlaina were frequently recovered in macerates, their affinities being unresolved. New collections from a Lochkovian locality in the Welsh Borderland permitted the reconstruction of the stratified thalli of these nematophytes; they comprise a superficial cortex (which produced the cuticles) overlying a palisade zone composed of septate, parallel tubes, presumed to be hyphae, and a basal zone comprising wefts of randomly interwoven hyphae. Excellent three dimensional preservation allows the erection of a new species of Nematothallus, N.williamii. A similar anatomy is seen in a new group of fossils with either circular incisions in the cortex or complete separation of thickened cortical cells, presumably comprising a developmental sequence. By their stratified organization the nematophytes differ from extant and extinct algae and bryophytes and the enigmatic Spongiophyton. A complex anatomy and septate tubes suggest affinity with lichenized fungi. Limited data support a fungal rather than embryophyte chemistry, but a photobiont is missing. Nematophytes, globally widespread in cryptogamic covers from mid-Ordovician times, added to the biodiversity in early terrestrial ecosystems and enhanced chemical weathering. © 2013 The Linnean Society of London.
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/boj.12119
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  • Elumeeva, T. G./ V. G. Onipchenko/ A. V. Egorov/ A. B. Khubiev/ D. K. Tekeev/ N. A. Soudzilovskaia/ J. H. C. Cornelissen 2013: Long-term vegetation dynamic in the Northwestern Caucasus: Which communities are more affected by upward shifts of plant species?. - Alpine Botany 123(2): 77-85. [RLL List # 233 / Rec.# 35099]
    Keywords: Alpine community/ Altitude/ Climate change/ Functional traits/ abundance/ alpine environment/ altitude/ grazing pressure/ growth/ lichen/ plant community/ snow accumulation/ snow cover/ vegetation dynamics/ warming/ Caucasus
    Abstract: We studied long-term (25-31 years) dynamics of alpine communities at the Teberda Reserve, NW Caucasus, Russia, to test the following hypotheses: (1) lower altitude species increase and high altitude species decrease their abundance as a consequence of climate warming; (2) such changes in abundance are more significant in communities with short growth season (due to persistent snow cover) compared to exposed communities; (3) species with similar changes in abundance have similar functional traits. Four alpine communities with different positions in relief were considered in order of winter snow cover: alpine lichen heaths (ALH), Festuca varia grasslands (FVG), Geranium-Hedysarum meadows (GHM), and snowbed communities (SBC). The altitudinal distribution of species significantly predicted the direction and degree of changes in species abundance in GHM (p < 0.001), SBC (p < 0.02) and FVG (p < 0.05) with high altitude species decreasing and low altitude species increasing their abundance. Mean altitudes of significantly decreasing species exceeded that of increasing species by ca. 100-130 m in FVG, GHM and SBC. There were no species traits or trait combinations that consistently predicted their changing abundance in ALH, FVG and SBC. In GHM increasing species tended to have leaves with higher SLA (i.e. softer leaves) and lower root nitrogen content. The observed dynamic processes may be caused partly by recent climate warming, although slow recovery from historic grazing pressure may also play a role. Regardless of the causes driving the plant species' upward shift, communities experiencing high snow accumulation (SBC, GHM) seem to be more vulnerable to changes in structure and composition. © 2013 Swiss Botanical Society.
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00035-013-0122-7
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  • Esposito, A./ S. Ciccazzo/ L. Borruso/ S. Zerbe/ D. Daffonchio/ L. Brusetti 2013: A three-scale analysis of bacterial communities involved in rocks colonization and soil formation in high mountain environments. - Current Microbiology 67(4): 472-479. [RLL List # 232 / Rec.# 34976]
    Keywords: Bacterial communities/ Biodiversity/ Fingerprinting methods/ Glacier foreland/ High mountain environments
    Abstract: Alpha and beta diversities of the bacterial communities growing on rock surfaces, proto-soils, riparian sediments, lichen thalli, and water springs biofilms in a glacier foreland were studied. We used three molecular based techniques to allow a deeper investigation at different taxonomic resolutions: denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, length heterogeneity-PCR, and automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis. Bacterial communities were mainly composed of Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Cyanobacteria with distinct variations among sites. Proteobacteria were more represented in sediments, biofilms, and lichens; Acidobacteria were mostly found in proto-soils; and Cyanobacteria on rocks. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were mainly found in biofilms. UniFrac P values confirmed a significant difference among different matrices. Significant differences (P < 0.001) in beta diversity were observed among the different matrices at the genus-species level, except for lichens and rocks which shared a more similar community structure, while at deep taxonomic resolution two distinct bacterial communities between lichens and rocks were found. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00284-013-0391-9
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  • Etayo, J./ A. Flakus/ M. Kukwa 2013: Capronia paranectrioides (Herpotrichiellaceae, Ascomycota), a new lichenicolous fungus from Bolivia. - Lichenologist 45(5): 623-626. [RLL List # 232 / Rec.# 34999]
    Keywords: Andes/ biodiversity/ Neotropics/ South America/ taxonomy
    Abstract: The new lichenicolous Capronia paranectrioides Etayo, Flakus & Kukwa, inhabiting thalli of Erioderma leylandii, is described from Bolivia. The species is characterized by pale brown, submuriform and bicaudate ascospores, subglobose to barrel-shaped perithecia and I+ red, K/I+ pale blue hymenial gelatine. It is the first known Capronia species producing ascospores with long apical appendages. Copyright © British Lichen Society 2013.
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0024282913000315
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