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  • Vondrák J/ Redchenko O/ Himelbrant D/ Stepanchikova I/ Kuznetsova E 2010: Some sterile Caloplaca crusts identified by molecular data from the Leningrad region (Russia).. - Folia Cryptogamica Estonica 47: 97-99. [RLL Suppl. Rec.# 503]
    Abstract: Four samples of sterile Caloplaca crusts (Teloschistaceae, lichenized fungi) were determined on the basis of their ITS nrDNA sequences. The samples, collected in NW Russia, mainly from Kotlin Island, Baltic Sea, belong to three species, C. dichroa, C. obscurella and C. phlogina, the first and last species being new to north-western European Russia and to Leningrad region.
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  • Vondrák J/ Vondráková O/ Khodosovtsev A 2010: First record of fertile Caloplaca arcisproxima and designation of its epitype.. - Chornomorski Botanical Journal 6: 506-507. [RLL Suppl. Rec.# 564]
    Keywords: CALOPLACA CITRINA GROUP, EPITYPE DESIGNATION, LICHEN-FORMING FUNGI, NOMENCLATURE
    Abstract: Caloplaca arcisproxima (Teloschistaceae, lichenized fungi) was described from sterile specimens. Subsequently, we collected fertile thalli of the species in the Crimean Peninsula (Ukraine) and we provide characters of apothecia as its additional identification. Although the species is usually distinguishable by the shape of its sorediate squamules, the fertile specimen possesses characters of apothecia and we designate it as the epitype of C. arcisproxima. Identification of the epitype was supported by its ITS nrDNA sequence.
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  • Vondrák J 2010: Selected exsiccates of Caloplaca, Fasc. 2 (Nos 26-50).. - Fritschiana 67: 1-10. [RLL Suppl. Rec.# 497]
    Abstract: Fascicle 2 of 'Selected exsiccates of Caloplaca' comprises 25 collections of lichens from the following countries: Australia, Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Romania, Russia, Spain, Turkey, and Ukraine. Isotypes of Caloplaca communis and Caloplaca concreticola and topotype material of Caloplaca albopustulata and Caloplaca borysthenica are distributed.
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  • Vondrák, J./ J. Liska 2010: Changes in distribution and substrate preferences of selected threatened lichens in the Czech Republic.. - Biologia 65: 595-602. [RLL List # 225 / Rec.# 33359]
    Keywords: HABITAT SHRINKING/ SUBSTRATE SPECIFICITY/ SUBSTRATE SWITCH
    Abstract: The distribution and ecology of four threatened lichens in the Czech Republic, Evernia mesomorpha, Hyperphyscia adglutinata, Hypotrachyna revoluta and Parmotrema perlatum, have been studied. All species are mainly epiphytic, but recent records from the Czech Republic are largely from siliceous rocks in river/brook valleys. Changes in distribution and substrate preferences are documented and discussed.[21]
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  • Vondrák, J./ O. Vondráková/ A. Khodosovtsev 2010: First record of fertile Caloplaca arcisproxima and designation of its epitype. - Chornomorskyi Botanichnyi Zhurnal 6(4): 506-507. [RLL List # 227 / Rec.# 33615]
    Countries/Continents: Ukraine
    Notes: In English with Ukrainian and Russian abstracts.
    URL:
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  • Vondrák, J. 2010: Selected exsiccates of Caloplaca, Fasc. 2 (Nos 26-50).. - Fritschiana 67: 1-10. [RLL List # 225 / Rec.# 33358]
    Abstract: Fascicle 2 of 'Selected exsiccates of Caloplaca' comprises 25 collections of lichens from the following countries: Australia, Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Romania, Russia, Spain, Turkey, and Ukraine. Isotypes of Caloplaca communis and Caloplaca concreticola and topotype material of Caloplaca albopustulata and Caloplaca borysthenica are distributed.[20]
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  • Vondrák, J./ Z. Palice/ A. Khodosovtsev/ S. Postoyolkin 2010: Additions to the diversity of rare or overlooked lichens and lichenicolous fungi in Ukrainian Carpathians.. - Chornomors'kiy Botanichniy Zhurnal 6: 6-34. [RLL List # 225 / Rec.# 33360]
    Abstract: Data on 103 rare or overlooked lichenized, lichenicolous and lichen-allied fungi from Ukrainian Carpathians are provided. Among them, 29 lichen-forming fungi, three lichenicolous fungi and one (facultatively lichenicolous) algicolous fungus are new to Ukraine: Absconditella sphagnorum, Adelolecia kolaensis, Arthonia muscigena, Arthrorhaphis aeruginosa, Biatora albohyalina, Brodoa atrofusca, Bryodina rhypariza, Calicium pinastri, Caloplaca fuscorufa, C. isidiigera, Carbonea invadens, Catillaria croatica, Cryptodiscus gloeocapsa, Cystocoleus ebeneus, Epigloea medioincrassata, Gyalidea fritzei, Lecidea pullata, Lecidella patavina, Melaspilea granitophila, Micarea turfosa, Monodictys epilepraria, Opegrapha corticola, Phaeographis inusta, Polyblastia schaereriana, Protothelenella sphinctrinoides, Psilolechia clavulifera, Pycnora leucococca, Rinodina orculata, Sclerococcum griseisporodochium, Thelocarpon robustum auct. brit., non Eitner, Trapeliopsis glaucolepidea and Vezdaea stipitata. There is no reliable/confirmed record of Brodoa intestiniformis from Ukrainian Carpathians; all herbarium samples named as such proved to be B. atrofusca or were misidentified. All references to Chaenotheca cinerea in checklists which consider Ukraine are erroneous or very dubious, thus our record is the first reliable for Ukraine, as are our collections of Caloplaca conversa and Lecidea sphaerella. Although Multiclavula mucida and Schaereria fuscocinerea are absent from lichen checklists of Eastern Carpathians and Ukraine, they have been reported from the territory in previous published Czech or Ukrainian papers. Pertusaria ophthalmiza was recorded from Ukraine, incorrectly as P. multipuncta, but the presence of true P. multipuncta (Turner) Nyl. (non auct.) is uncertain in Ukraine. Phaeographis dendritica and Biatora meiocarpoides should be excluded from upcoming lists of Ukrainian lichens; the former is incorrectly reported from Ukrainian Carpathians and the latter is a synonym of Micarea lithinella.[22]
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  • W. B. Sanders 2010: Together and separate: reconstructing life histories of lichen symbionts. - In: T. H. Nash, III, L. Geiser, B. McCune, D. Triebel, A. M. F. Tomescu and W. B. Sanders: Biology of Lichens ― Symbiosis, Ecology, Environmental Monitoring, Systematics and Cyber Applications. Bibliotheca Lichenologica No. 105. J. Cramer in der Gebrüder Borntraeger Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart. 256 pages, pp. 1-16. [RLL List # 220 / Rec.# 32182]
    Keywords: LIFE CYCLE/ PHOTOBIONTS/ MYCOBIONTS/ LIFE HISTORY/ SYMBIOSIS/ GROWTH
    Abstract: [Author reviews mycobiont biology especially " ... nutritional strategies employed before a symbiotic thallus can be organized, and the frequency, implications and outcomes of multiple fungal genotypes contributing to the formation of a single lichen thallus." For the photobiont, "It is stressed that very little is known with certainty concerning any of the major events in their presumed sexual cycles."]
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  • W. Härdtle and G. von Oheimb 2010: Beziehungen zwischen Struktur und Kryptogamenflora von unbewirtschafteten und bewirtschafteten Buchenwäldern im nordostdeutschen Tiefland. - Drosera 2009: 45-53. [RLL List # 221 / Rec.# 32393]
    Keywords: GERMANY/ CRYPTOGAMS/ BEECH FORESTS/ FOREST MANAGEMENT/ HABITAT QUALITY
    Abstract: [Study of forest structure on populations of lichens and bryophytes in managed and unmanaged beech forests in northeastern Germany. "Since high dbh values are positively correlated with both the number of habitats and the habitat quality required by these species, old trees with high dbh proved to be the most important phorophytes for cryptogams. Aiming at the preservation of a diverse flora of cryptogams, forest management should ensure the continuous occurrence of big trees above the target diameter. In addition, a single tree selection felling method should be applied to minimise changes in the cryptogams' microclimate."]
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  • W. Obermayer and K. Kalb 2010: Notes on three species of Pyxine (lichenized Ascomycetes) from Tibet and adjacent regions. - In: J. Hafellner, I. Kärnefelt and V. Wirth: Diversity and Ecology of Lichens in Polar and Mountain Ecosystems. Bibliotheca Lichenologica No. 104. J. Cramer in der Gebrüder Borntraeger Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart, pp. 247-267. [RLL List # 219 / Rec.# 32098]
    Keywords: TIBET/ PYXINE/ NEPAL/ CHEMISTRY/ CHINA
    Abstract: [Notes on morphology and chemistry of Pyxine limbulata (including details on semi-mature spores), P. microspora and P. sorediata. An appendix lists Pyxine taxa from Nepal housed in the herbarium GZU.]
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  • W. Quilhot, M. Cuellar, R. Díaz, F. Riquelme and C. Rubio 2010: Preliminary study of the lichen flora of Isla Mocha, southern Chile. - Gayana Botánica 67(2): 206-212. [RLL List # 222 / Rec.# 32753]
    Keywords: AEXTOXICON PUNCTATUM/ DISTRIBUTION/ ENDEMISM/ LICHEN
    Abstract: [76 Taxa are noted, including one new record for Chile (Ramalina fastigiata).]
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  • W. von Brackel and J. Etayo 2010: Pronectria collematis (Bionectriaceae, Hypocreales), a new species on Collema from Germany and Spain. - Lichenologist 42(4): 361-364. [RLL List # 219 / Rec.# 32276]
    Keywords: PRONECTRIA/ HYPOCREALES/ COLLEMA/ LICHENICOLOUS/ GERMANY/ SPAIN/ NEW TAXA
    Abstract: [New: Pronectria collematis Etayo & Brackel sp. nov. from 3 different Collema taxa.]
    – 10.1017/S0024282910000095

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  • W. von Brackel 2010: Weitere Funde von flechtenbewohnenden Pilzen in Bayern ― Beitrage zu einer Checkliste V. - Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft 80: 5-32. [RLL List # 221 / Rec.# 32561]
    Keywords: BAVARIA/ GERMANY/ LICHENICOLOUS/ CHECKLIST
    Abstract: [List of 63 lichenicolous taxa from Bavaria including 8 species new to Germany and 6 new to Bavaria. New: Arthonia coniocraeae sp. nov., Dacampia lecaniae sp. nov., Merismatium physciae sp. nov. and Nectriopsis frangospora sp. nov. In German with an English summary.]
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  • Wannebo-Nilsen, K./ J. W. Bjerke/ P. S. A. Beck/ H. Třmmervik 2010: Epiphytic macrolichens in spruce plantations and native birch forests along a coast-inland gradient in North Norway. - Boreal Environment Research 15(1): 43-57. [RLL List # 230 / Rec.# 34353]
    URL:
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  • Wilk, K. 2010: Introduction to the lichen diversity of the Madidi region in Bolivia. - In: Z. Mirek, A. Flakus, A. Krzanowski, A. Paulo & J. Wojtusiak: The nature and culture of Latin America. W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków, pp. 203-210. [RLL List # 225 / Rec.# 33333]
    Notes: In English with Spanish abstract
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  • Wirth, V. 2010: Flechtengesellschaften der Namibwüste [Lichen communities of the Namib Desert]. - Carolinea 68: 49-60. [RLL List # 223 / Rec.# 33012]
    Abstract: [In German with English abstract.]
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  • Wirth, V. 2010: Lichens of the Namib Desert: A guide to their identification. - Klaus Hess Verlag: Göttingen. 96 pp. [RLL List # 227 / Rec.# 33805]
    Abstract: Lichens play a significant role in the ecosystem of the Namib Desert since they can absorb moisture from the frequent fogs to become physiologically active, a strategy which is unavailable for higher plants. Due to this water source, the desert is therefore less of an environmental problem for lichens, their colourful shrubby, foliose or crustose thalli deco-rating rocks, boulders, pebbles, twigs of shrubs and soil. In coastal regions, under more favourable conditions, as in the plains north of Swakop-mund, they may cover huge areas, where the dense populations form the so-called lichen fields. This booklet provides information on lichens in general and more specifically on the lichen biota of the Namib Desert, with 75 species illustrated in colour.
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  • X. Feng, A. J. Simpson, E. G. Gregorich, B. Elberling, D. W. Hopkins, A. D. Sparrow, P. M. Novis, L. G. Greenfield and M. J. Simpson 2010: Chemical characterization of microbial-dominated soil organic matter in the Garwood Valley, Antarctica. - Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 74(22): 6485-6498. [RLL List # 221 / Rec.# 32383]
    Keywords: ANTARCTICA/ GARWOOD VALLEY/ SOILS/ CARBON/ NITROGEN/ CHEMISTRY
    Abstract: ["Natural abundance carbon and nitrogen stable isotope signatures of organic materials in the dry valleys indicate mixed provenance of the soil organic matter (SOM) with varying proportions of contributions from lichens, mosses, lake-derived algae and cyanobacteria."]
    – 10.1016/j.gca.2010.08.019

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  • X. Wang, M. Krings and T. N. Taylor 2010: A thalloid organism with possible lichen affinity from the Jurassic of northeastern China. - Review of Paleobotany and Palynology 162(4): 591-598. [RLL List # 221 / Rec.# 32566]
    Keywords: JURASSIC/ PALEOBOTANY/ LICHEN FOSSIL/ CHINA/ CILIA
    Abstract: [The new taxon Daohugouthallus ciliiferus nov. gen. et spec. shows branches with structures that resemble lichen cilia while other structures seem similar to soredia.]
    – 10.1016/j.revpalbo.2010.07.005

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  • X. Wei, B. McCune, L. Wang and J. Wei 2010: Hypogymnia magnifica (Parmeliaceae), a new lichen from southwest China. - The Bryologist 113(1): 120-123. [RLL List # 218 / Rec.# 32287]
    Keywords: HYPOGYMNIA/ NEW TAXA/ CHINA/ SICHUAN/ YUNNAN/ HENGDUAN MOUNTAINS
    Abstract: [New: Hypogymnia magnifica X. L. Wei & McCune sp. nov. from Yunnan and Sichuan Provinces, China.]
    – 10.1639/0007-2745-113.1.120

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  • X. Y. Wang, X. L. Wei, H. Luo, J. A. Kim, H. S. Jeon, Y. J. Koh and J.-S. Hur 2010: Plant hormones promote growth in lichen-forming fungi. - Mycobiology 38(3): 176-179. [RLL List # 221 / Rec.# 32567]
    Keywords: PLANT HORMONES/ LICHEN GROWTH/ IBA/ TRIIODOBENZOIC ACID/ NEPHROMOPSIS
    Abstract: [2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid and indole-3-butyric acid promoted growth of the mycobiont of Nephromopsis ornata, while other hormones did not.]
    – 10.4489/MYCO.2010.38.3.176

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  • X. Y. Wang, Y. Joshi, J. S. Hur, S. O. Oh and L. S. Wang 2010: Taxonomic studies on the lichen flora of southwestern China (1). Pilophorus yunnanensis sp. nov. (Cladoniaceae). - The Bryologist 113(2): 345-349. [RLL List # 220 / Rec.# 32285]
    Keywords: PILOPHORUS/ CHINA/ YUNNAN/ NEW TAXA/ EAST ASIA
    Abstract: [New: Pilophorus yunnanensis L. S. Wang & X. Y. Wang (on rocks at high elevation).]
    – 10.1639/0007-2745-113.2.345

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  • X.-M. Wen, A. Abdulla, R. Mamut, A. Abbas and A. Tumur 2010: Analysis of the eco-geographical characteristic of Usnea lichens in northern Xinjiang. - Guihaia 30(4): 478-483. [RLL List # 221 / Rec.# 32569]
    Keywords: XINJIANG/ CHINA/ USNEA/ FLORA/ FLORISTIC ELEMENTS/ TIBET
    Abstract: [Brief notes on 22 species belonging to 7 geographical groups. "It had also been discovered that the vertical distribution characteristics of Usnea in Altay Mountains and Tianshan Mountains were very different." In Chinese with an English abstract.]
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  • X.-R. Li, M.-Z. He, S. Zerbe, X.-J. Li and L.-C. Liu 2010: Micro-geomorphology determines community structure of biological soil crusts at small scales. - Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 35(8): 932-940. [RLL List # 221 / Rec.# 32445]
    Keywords: SOIL CRUSTS/ BIOLOGICAL SOIL CRUSTS/ GEOMORPHOLOGY/ STRUCTURE/ TENGGER DESERT/ SPACIAL DISTRIBUTION/ CHINA
    Abstract: [Study in the Tengger Desert, Inner Mongolia, China. "Our results showed that higher soil pH and higher total potassium content in topsoil positively correlated with the colonization of cyanobacteria and algae in the earliest successional stages of BSCs [biological soil crusts], while increasing dust deposition onto the topsoil enhanced the development of lichen and mosses in the later stages of BSCs. Increasing soil moisture raised the proportion of mosses and lichen in BSCs, this will possibly change the ecological functions of BSCs, such as nitrogen-fixation by cyanobacteria, due to the conversion from a complex to relative simple type of BSC."]
    – 10.1002/esp.1963

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  • Y. Gauslaa, P. Larsson and J. Asplund 2010: Selective feeding by gastropods in Lobaria scrobiculata allows quantification of intrathalline anatomical layers. - Lichenologist 42(5): 621-625. [RLL List # 220 / Rec.# 31867]
    Keywords: GASTROPODS/ SNAILS/ LOBARIA SCROBICULATA/ NORWAY/ WATER HOLDING CAPACITY/ WATER RELATIONS/ FEEDING BEHAVIOR
    Abstract: ["In conclusion, grazing gastropods can be used as tools through their feeding on the upper cortex and photobiont layers of thalli of L. scrobiculata to allow estimation of the density and WHC [water holding capacity] for the upper and lower thallus parts respectively."]
    – 10.1017/S0024282910000137

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  • Y. Joshi, L. Lőkös, X. Y. Wang, T. T. Nguyen, Y. J. Koh and J.-S. Hur 2010: Identification of Sculptolumina japonica (Physciaceae) in South Korea. - Mycobiology 38(1): 62-64. [RLL List # 218 / Rec.# 31952]
    Keywords: SCULPTOLUMINA/ SOUTH KOREA/ EASTERN ASIA/ PHYSCIACEAE/ BUELLIA/ NEW RECORDS/ GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION
    Abstract: [First report from South Korea from Jeollanam and Gyeongsangnam Provinces.]
    – 10.4489/MYCO.2010.38.1.062

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  • Y. Joshi, R. Lücking, Y. Yamamoto, X. Y. Wang, Y. J. Koh and J. S. Hur 2010: A new species of Graphis (lichenized Ascomycetes) from South Korea. - Mycotaxon 113: 305-309. [RLL List # 222 / Rec.# 32672]
    Keywords: BIODIVERSITY/ GRAPHIDACEAE/ LICHENS/ OSTROPALES/ TAXONOMY
    Abstract: [Graphis flavopalmkola is described as a new lichenized fungus.]
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  • Y. Joshi, R. Lücking, Y. Yamamoto, X. Y. Wang, Y. J. Koh and J.-S. Hur 2010: A new species of Graphis (lichenized Ascomycetes) from South Korea. - Mycotaxon 113: 305-309. [RLL List # 221 / Rec.# 32424]
    Keywords: GRAPHIS/ SOUTH KOREA/ NEW TAXA/ JEJU ISLAND/ GRAPHIDACEAE/ OSTROPALES
    Abstract: [New: Graphis flavopalmicola Y. Joshi, Lücking & Hur sp. nov. (on bark of Abies koreana from Jeju Island).]
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  • Y. Joshi, X. Y. Wang, L. Lőkös, Y. J. Koh and J.-S. Hur 2010: Notes on lichen genus Buellia De Not. (lichenized Ascomycetes) from South Korea. - Mycobiology 38(1): 65-69. [RLL List # 218 / Rec.# 31955]
    Keywords: BUELLIA/ SOUTH KOREA/ KEY/ HAFELLIA
    Abstract: [New records for Buellia maritima, B. polyspora, B. spuria and B. stellata, including a key to 7 Buellia species in South Korea.]
    – 10.4489/MYCO.2010.38.1.065

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  • Y. Joshi, X. Y. Wang, T. T. Nguyen, Y. J. Koh and J.-S. Hur 2010: Notes on the existence of Leucodecton desquamescens (thelotremoid Graphidaceae) in South Korea. - Mycobiology 38(2): 149-152. [RLL List # 220 / Rec.# 31956]
    Keywords: SOUTH KOREA/ LEUCODECTON/ GRAPHIDACEAE/ THELOTREMATACEAE
    Abstract: [Report of collections from Mt. Sorak, Kangwon Province and includes a chart comparing characters of L. desquamescens with 4 other Leucodecton spp.]
    – 10.4489/MYCO.2010.38.2.149

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  • Y. Joshi, X. Y. Wang, Y. J. Koh and J.-S. Hur 2010: The lichen genus Lepraria (Stereocaulaceae) in South Korea. - Mycotaxon 112: 201-217. [RLL List # 219 / Rec.# 31954]
    Keywords: SOUTH KOREA/ LEPRARIA/ KEY/ NEW COUNTRY RECORDS/ LICHEN DISTRIBUTION
    Abstract: [Treatment of 17 taxa; key. Most species are new records for South Korea, and 7 taxa are new reports for Eastern Asia (including China and Japan).]
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  • Y. Joshi, X. Y. Wang, Y. Yamamoto, Y. J. Koh and J. S. Hur 2010: A first modern contribution to Caloplaca biodiversity in South Korea: Two new species and some new country records. - The Lichenologist 42: 715-722. [RLL List # 222 / Rec.# 32674]
    Keywords: BIODIVERSITY/ COASTAL REGIONS/ EAST ASIA/ GYROPHORIC ACID/ LECANORIC ACID/ LICHEN-FORMING FUNGI/ TELOSCHISTACEAE
    Abstract: [C. bogilana and C. subflavorubescens are described. Nine others are reported for the first time in South Korea.]
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  • Y. Joshi, X. Y. Wang, Y. Yamamoto, Y. J. Koh and J.-S. Hur 2010: A first modern contribution to Caloplaca biodiversity in South Korea: two new species and some new country records. - Lichenologist 42(6): 715-722. [RLL List # 221 / Rec.# 32425]
    Keywords: SOUTH KOREA/ ASIA/ CALOPLACA/ NEW TAXA
    Abstract: [Records for 9 species new to South Korea plus Caloplaca bogilana Y. Joshi & Hur sp. nov. and C. subflavorubescens Y. Joshi & Hur sp. nov.]
    – 10.1017/S0024282910000368

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  • Y. Joshi, Y. J. Koh and J.-S. Hur 2010: Further additions to lichen genus Buellia De Not. in South Korea. - Mycobiology 38(3): 222-224. [RLL List # 221 / Rec.# 32422]
    Keywords: BUELLIA/ SOUTH KOREA/ KEY/ LICHEN DISTRIBUTION
    Abstract: [New to South Korea: Buellia badia and B. nashii. A key to the genus Buellia in South Korea is included.]
    – 10.4489/MYCO.2010.38.3.222

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  • Y. Joshi, Y. J. Koh and J.-S. Hur 2010: Three new records of lichen genus Rhizocarpon from South Korea. - Mycobiology 38(3): 219-221. [RLL List # 221 / Rec.# 32423]
    Keywords: RHIZOCARPON/ SOUTH KOREA/ KEY
    Abstract: [New to South Korea: Rhizocarpon alpicola, R. grande and R. lavatum. A key to the genus Rhizocarpon in South Korea is included.]
    – 10.4489/MYCO.2010.38.3.219

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  • Y. Ohmura and K. Onimaru 2010: Materials for the distribution of lichens in Japan (16). Usnea filipendula Stirt.. - Journal of Japanese Botany 85(3): 190-192. [RLL List # 220 / Rec.# 32100]
    Keywords: JAPAN/ HOKKAIDO/ USNEA/ BIODIVERSITY
    Abstract: ["Usnea filipendula Stirt. was rediscovered in Hokkaido of Japan for the first time since 1922."]
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  • Y. Takenaka, N. Hamada and T. Tanahashi 2010: Structure and biosynthesis of lecanopyrone, a naphtho[1,8-cd]pyran-3-one derivative from cultured lichen mycobionts of Lecanora leprosa. - Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung - Section C Journal of Biosciences 65C(11-12): 637-641. [RLL List # 222 / Rec.# 32784]
    Keywords: LECANORA LEPROSA/ LICHEN MYCOBIONT/ NAPHTHO[1,8-CD]PYRAN-3-ONE
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  • Y. Takenaka, N. Nagakura, N. Hamada and T. Tanahashi 2010: Naphthopyrones from cultured lichen mycobionts of Pyrenula sp. - Heterocycles 81(8): 1931-1935. [RLL List # 222 / Rec.# 32785]
    Abstract: [This study describes the first instance of isolation of naphthalene derivatives from a lichen mycobiont.]
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  • Y. Xu, A. J. Simpson, N. Eyles and M. J. Simpson 2010: Sources and molecular composition of cryoconite organic matter from the Athabasca Glacier, Canadian Rocky Mountains. - Organic Geochemistry 41(2): 177-186. [RLL List # 218 / Rec.# 32307]
    Keywords: GLACIERS/ NUTRIENTS/ MICROORGANISMS/ CRYOCONITE/ ATHABASCA GLACIER/ CANADA
    Abstract: [One source may be from lichens and mosses.]
    – 10.1016/j.orggeochem.2009.10.010

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  • Y. Yamamoto, K. Hara, M. Komine, H. Kawakami, Y. Mizoguchi and T. Sando 2010: Noteworthy lichens recently found in the Kii Peninsula, central Honshu, Japan I. - Nanki Seibutu 52(1): 1-5. [RLL List # 220 / Rec.# 32309]
    Keywords: JAPAN/ HONSHU/ NEW RECORDS/ CRUSTOSE
    Abstract: [New records for Haematomma persoonii, Dirinaria aegialita, Physcia albicans and Sarcographa tricosa. Primarily in Japanese.]
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  • Y. Yamamoto, K. Takahashi, H. Harada, Y. Usuniwa, T. Kobayashi, A. Kawamata and I. Yoshimura 2010: Materials for the study of distributions of lichenized fungi (23). Canoparmelia aptata and C. texana. - Lichenology 9(1): 31-36. [RLL List # 220 / Rec.# 32310]
    Keywords: JAPAN/ CANOPARMELIA
    Abstract: [Notes on the morphology, chemistry and Japanese distribution of these two taxa. In Japanese with English title and figure captions.]
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  • Y. Yamamoto, K. Takahashi, M. Kimura, K. Hara and M. Komine 2010: Noteworthy lichens recently found in the Kii Peninsula, central Honshu, Japan II.. - Nanki Seibutu 52(2): 124-128. [RLL List # 222 / Rec.# 32800]
    Abstract: [In Japanese.]
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  • Y. Yamamoto, T. Takeda, Y. Sato, K. Hara, M. Komine and T. Inamoto 2010: Inhibitory effects of the extracts of natural thalli and cultured mycobionts of lichens against 15 bacteria. - Lichenology 9(1): 11-17. [RLL List # 220 / Rec.# 32311]
    Keywords: BACTERIA/ MEDICAL/ ANTIBACTERIAL/ CULTURED LICHEN MYCOBIONTS
    Abstract: [Study of acetone extracts of 70 lichen species and 34 cultured mycobionts against 15 bacteria taxa.]
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  • Y.-C. Hsu and Y.-C. Huang 2010: A preliminary examination of the specimens of lichen and bryophyte collected by Professor Min-Jou Lai. - Journal of the National Taiwan Museum 63(1): 45-82. [RLL List # 220 / Rec.# 31937]
    Keywords: TAIWAN/ CHINA/ MIN-JOU LAI/ HERBARIA
    Abstract: [List of 1458 specimens with locality data and year of collection (1970-1980) which have been donated to the Herbarium of the National Taiwan Museum. In Chinese with an English abstract.]
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  • Y.-D. Du, F.-G. Meng, H.-M. Li, H.-Y. Wang and Z.-T. Zhao 2010: Three new records of brown parmelioid lichens from the Tibetan Plateau. - Mycotaxon 111: 283-286. [RLL List # 218 / Rec.# 31805]
    Keywords: TIBETAN PLATEAU/ CHINA/ BROWN PARMELIAE/ YUNNAN/ SICHUAN/ ASIA
    Abstract: [New localities for Melanelixia albertana (Sichuan), M. subaurifera (Sichuan) and Melanohalea gomukhensis (Yunnan).]
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  • Z. Ferencova, R. Del Prado, I. Pérez-Vargas, C. Hernández-Padrón and A. Crespo 2010: A discussion about reproductive modes of Pseudevernia furfuracea based on phylogenetic data. - Lichenologist 42(4): 449-460. [RLL List # 219 / Rec.# 31845]
    Keywords: PSEUDEVERNIA/ REPRODUCTION/ NORTH AMERICA/ EUROPE/ SOREDIA/ ISIDIA/ APOTHECIA/ SPECIES PAIRS/ VEGETATIVE MODES/ CANARY ISLANDS/ MOROCCO/ TURKEY/ MOLECULAR PHYLOGENETICS
    Abstract: [Study incorporated nuITS and mtLSU sequence data. Authors conclude that " ... (a) sorediate samples represent only a morphological variant of the reproductive mode and (b) the separation of taxa (as the species level or below) on the basis of their containing either olivetoric acid or physodic acid and oxyphysodic acids is not appropriate." The North American taxa (P. intensa, P. cladonia and P. consocians) represent a separate, monophyletic clade.]
    – 10.1017/S0024282909990739

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  • Z. Jeran, J. Vaupotic, D. Kocman and D. Kastelec 2010: How lichens and mosses reflect atmospheric deposition of natural and artificial radionuclides. - International Journal of Environment and Health 4(2-3): 137-150. [RLL List # 221 / Rec.# 32411]
    Keywords: RADIONUCLIDES/ FALLOUT/ ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION/ BIOACCUMULATION/ BIOMONITORING
    Abstract: [Study in Slovenia using Hypogymnia physodes and the moss Hypnum cupressiforme which " ... were analyzed for 210Pb and 137Cs. Further, the results for 210Pb were compared with outdoor 222Rn and with precipitation data. There was a relatively good agreement between the two biomonitors, with the highest values in the northern part of the country."
    – 10.1504/IJENVH.2010.033704

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  • Z. Palice 2010: Nová lichenologická literatura XIX. New lichenological literature, XIX. - Bryonora 45: 53-63. [RLL List # 220 / Rec.# 32112]
    Keywords: LITERATURE/ BIBLIOGRAPHY
    Abstract: [Many references.]
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  • Z. S. Marković and N. T. Manojlović 2010: Analytical characterization of lichexanthone in lichen: HPLC, UV spectroscopic, and DFT analysis of lichexanthone extracted from Laurera benguelensis (Mull. Arg.) Zahlbr. - Monatshefte fur Chemie 141(9): 945-952. [RLL List # 222 / Rec.# 32724]
    Keywords: ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY/ DFT/ HPLC-UV/ LAURERA BENGUELENSIS/ XANTHONE
    Abstract: ["The results confirm the potential of HPLC-UV analysis for taxonomic characterization of lichen species."]
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  • Zahradníková, M. 2010: Does the traffic flow affect the lichen diversity? A case study from the NovohradskéHory Mts, Czech Republic. - Acta Universitatis Carolinae, Environmentalica 24(1-2): 27-44. [RLL List # 231 / Rec.# 34659]
    Keywords: Air pollution/ Deciduous trees/ Epiphytic lichens/ Mapping lichen diversity/ South bohemia/ Traffic intensity/ acidification/ ash/ atmospheric pollution/ deciduous tree/ epiphyte/ lichen/ microclimate/ pH/ pollution effect/ shrub/ species diversity/ species richness/ traffic congestion/ Novohradske Mountains
    Abstract: Diversity of epiphytic lichens growing on trees with high (European ash, Norway maple) and low (sycamore) bark buffer capacity against acidification was assessed along motorways with different traffic intensities in the Novohradské Mountains, Czech Republic, to test the effect of traffic flow on the lichen richness. Twenty five plots were classified into four classes with low, moderate and moderate to high diversity according to the lichen diversity index. Lichen frequency was significantly correlated with five factors (CCA, CANOCO). Main factors influencing lichen diversity were climatic, microclimatic, geographical, and substrate conditions rather than traffic intensity. Nevertheless, the traffic flow influenced significantly and positively the richness of lichens growing on trunks towards roads for European ashes. Probably, bark pH increased due to vehicle-related compounds and supported the progress of neutrophytic and nitrophytic lichens. The occurrence of acidophytic lichens in all plots indicated a decreased bark pH in relation to the previous acid regime. However, neutrophytic and nitrophytic species prevailed in these plots. Parmelia sulcata and Amandinea punctata were the commonest species. Therefore, the lichen community studied reflects contemporary conditions of cutrophication, which is indicated by an increasing number of nitrophytic lichens, rather than by acidification. © Charles University in Prague-Karolinum Press 2012.
    URL:
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  • Zarabska, D. 2010: Interesujące gatunki porostów Równiny Nowotymskiej i ich występowanie na Nizinie Wielkopolsko-Kujawskiej [Some interesting records of lichenes from the Nowotomyska Plain and their occurrence in the Wielkopolsko-Kujawska Lowland]. - Badania Fizjograficzne Seria B - Botanika B59: 153-172. [RLL List # 225 / Rec.# 33443]
    Countries/Continents: Poland
    Notes: In Polish with English abstract.
    URL:
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  • Zhang, Y. & X. Wang 2010: Summary on formation and developmental characteristics of biological soil crusts in desert areas. - Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica 30(16): 4484-4492. [RLL List # 223 / Rec.# 33018]
    Abstract: In arid and semi-arid lands, the vegetation cover is usually sparse or absent. Nevertheless, in open spaces among higher plants, the soil surface is generally covered by a community of highly specialized organisms, such as mosses, lichens, liverworts, algae, fungi, cyanobacteria, and bacteria. These communities are usually referred to biological soil crusts, or cryptogamic, cryptobiotic, microbiotic, microphytic soil crusts. Biological soil crusts, given their extraordinary abilities to survive desiccation and extreme high temperatures, high pH and high salinity, have been found in desert areas all over the world and may constitute as high as 70% of the living cover in some plant communities. They play a significant role in ensuring the proper functioning of desert ecosystem, such as involvement in the process of formation, stability and fertility of soil, prevention of soil erosion caused by wind or water, augment of vascular plant colonization, and stabilization of sand dunes. The biological soil crust resulting from the colonization of soil surface by communities of filamentous cyanobacteria were mainly dominated by Microcoleus, which occurs as a cluster of filaments surrounded by a gelatinous sheath. Other important taxa are Lyngbya, Anabaena and Xenococcus lyngbyge. At this developmental stage, the main contributors for sand fixation were changed from bacteria to filamentous cyanobacteria. Microscopic examination of this kind of crust revealed an intricate network of filamentous cyanobacteria and extracellular polymer secretions, which binds and entraps mineral particles and finer particles stick on the filament surface. These effects enhance soil cohesion and resistance to erosion. Two major mechanisms are suggested for maintaining sand surface stabilities; (1) the ability of exopolysaccharides from some microorganisms (mainly bacteria) to cohere sand particles, and (2) formation of network by the filamentous microbes and cryptogam (cyanobacteria, algae, lichen and moss). With the alternation of crust-related species from cyanobacteria, algae and lichen to moss, the main agents maintaining microstructure of biological soil crust changed accordingly from glutinous exopolysaccharides to filamentous algae and hyphae of lichen and moss. Generally, the development of biological soil crust can be divided into three phases: original succession phase (including soil microorganisms and soil enzymes), algae crust phase and lichen-bryophyte crust phase. The establishment of former phase crust serves as a basis for the next phase of crust succession. Under drought conditions, soil crust is brittle, and can be crushed easily when subjected to compressional or shear forces. When the surface crust is broken, the unconsolidated loose sand grains below the crust are exposed to wind, resulting in severe soil erosion. Under favorable environmental conditions, such as sufficient water supply and moderate temperature, the less developed biological soil crust may surpass the intermediate phase and develop into higher level biological soil crust.
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  • Zhdanov, IS 2010: Scoliciosporum gallurae (Scoliciosporaceae), a lichen species new to Russia from Murmansk Region. - Botanicheskii Zhurnal 95(8): 1162-1164. [RLL Suppl. Rec.# 617]
    Keywords: SCOLICIOSPORUM/ RUSSIA/ MURMANSK REGION
    Abstract: [Scoliciosporum gallurae was for the first time found in Russia. Its description, data on distribution and distinction from S. sarothamni are given. In Russian with English abstract.]
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  • Zhdanov, IS 2010: The first data on the lichen flora of Central Siberian Biosphere Reserve (Krasnoyarsk Territory). - Novitates Systematicae Plantarum non Vascularium [Academia Scientiarum Rossica] 44: 153-170. [RLL Suppl. Rec.# 616]
    Keywords: CENTRAL SIBERIAN PLATEAU/ YENISEI RIVER/ BIODIVERSITY
    Abstract: [The preliminary list of lichens of the Central Siberian Biosphere Reserve comprises 220 species. 49 species are recorded for the first time for Central Siberian Plateau. In Russian with English abstract.]
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  • Şenkardeşler, A./ O. F. Calba 2011: New lichen records from Turkey. - Mycotaxon 115: 263-270. [RLL List # 224 / Rec.# 33214]
    Keywords: Afyon/ Ascomycetes/ Batman/ Diyarbakir/ Elazig/ Szmir/ Usak/ Usrnak
    Abstract: Lecanora albosparsa is lectotypified, the new combination Protoparmeliopsis klauskalbii is proposed, and three species of lichen-forming fungi \- Aspicilia albosparsa, P. klauskalbii, and Ramalina carpatica \- are reported as new to the lichen biota of Turkey. © 2011. Mycotaxon, Ltd.
    – doi: 10.5248/115.263

    Notes: New combination: Protoparmeliopsis klauskalbii (Sipman) Şenkard.
    URL: http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-80051948819&partnerID=40&md5=f1656b5a3bb52a2a262f110ea899c60d
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  • A. Aptroot and F. Schumm 2011: Fruticose Roccellaceae: an anatomical-microscopical atlas and guide with a worldwide key and further notes on some crustose Roccellaceae or similar lichens. - Published by Felix Schumm. 380 pp. [RLL List # 222 / Rec.# 32592]
    Abstract: [Includes color plates with ca. 780 pictures. Treats: Roccella, Roccellina, Dirina Combea, Coronoplectrum, Dolichocarpus, Gorgadesia, Hubbsia, Ingaderia, Pentagenella, Roccellinastrum, Santessonia, Schizopelte, Simonyella, and Siphula.]
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  • A. Aptroot 2011: A new species of Arthonia is a pest in an orchid nursery. - The Lichenologist 43(3): 199-201. [RLL List # 222 / Rec.# 32591]
    Abstract: [Arthonia orchidicida is described, and is the first lichen reported to cause economic damage.]
    – doi:10.1017/S0024282911000053

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  • A. Aptroot 2011: Additional lichen records from Australia. - Australasian Lichenology 68(3): . [RLL List # 222 / Rec.# 32590]
    Abstract: [New record of Agonimia opuntiella (Buschardt & Poelt) Vězda from Australia.]
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  • A. Berg, T. Josefsson and L. Östlund 2011: Cutting of lichen trees: a survival strategy used before the 20th century in northern Sweden. - Vegetation history and archaeobotany 20: 125-133. [RLL List # 222 / Rec.# 32598]
    Keywords: LAND USE/ SUB-ARCTIC/ FOREST ECOSYSTEMS/ INDIGENOUS PEOPLE/ REINDEER HERDING/ PRE-INDUSTRIAL
    Abstract: [This is an investigation of the Sami practice of cutting lichen-covered trees down to feed reindeer herds.]
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  • A. Fletcher 2011: [Review of:] A. Thell, M. R. D. Seaward and T. Feuerer: Diversity of Lichenology: Anniversary Volume. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 100. Stuttgart: J. Cramer, Gebrüder Borntraeger. 512 pages, 2009. - The Lichenologist 43(2): 189-189. [RLL List # 222 / Rec.# 32644]
    Abstract:
    – doi:10.1017/S0024282910000630

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  • A. L. Briggs and J. W. Morgan 2011: Seed characteristics and soil surface patch type interact to affect germination of semi-arid woodland species. - Plant Ecology 212(1): 91-103. [RLL List # 222 / Rec.# 32608]
    Keywords: BIOLOGICAL SOIL CRUST/ DISTURBANCE/ LITTER/ SAFE SITE/ SEED MORPHOLOGY/ SEEDLING REGENERATION
    Abstract: [One of the patch-types used in the experiment was Xanthoparmelia sp.]
    – 10.1007/s11258-010-9806-x

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  • A. M. Fryday 2011: New species and combinations in Calvitimela and Tephromela from the southern subpolar region. - The Lichenologist 43(3): 225-239. [RLL List # 222 / Rec.# 32647]
    Abstract: [New species Calvitimela austrochilenis Fryday and Tephromela superba Fryday are described.]
    – doi:10.1017/S0024282911000065

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  • A. Nordin, B. Owe-Larsson and L. Tibell 2011: Two new Aspicilia species from Fennoscandia and Russia. - The Lichenologist 43(1): 27-37. [RLL List # 222 / Rec.# 32738]
    Abstract: [Aspicilia fluviatilis and A. granulosa are described as new to science. Aspicilia epiglypta, A. disserpens and A. sublapponica are lectotypified and A. disserpens is reduced to synonymy with A. perradiata. Includes a key to Fennoscandian Aspicilia species with radiating thalli and/or elongate ± diverging and ± branching marginal areoles.]
    – doi:10.1017/S0024282910000629

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  • A. Pentecost 2011: [Review of:] F. Schumm and A. Aptroot: Seychelles Lichen Guide. Sussen, [Germany]: Beck, OHG 404 pages, 2010. - The Lichenologist 43(3): 283-283. [RLL List # 222 / Rec.# 32742]
    Abstract:
    – doi:10.1017/S0024282911000193

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  • A. Suija, S. Pérez-Ortega and D. L. Hawksworth 2011: Abrothallus halei (Ascomycota, incertae sedis), a new lichenicolous fungus on Lobaria species in Europe and North America. - The Lichenologist 43(1): 51-55. [RLL List # 222 / Rec.# 32779]
    Abstract: [New species is described and reported in Norway and the USA.]
    – doi:10.1017/S002428291000054X

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  • A. V. Bogorodskaya, G. A. Ivanova and P. A. Tarasov 2011: Post-fire transformation of the microbial complexes in soils of larch forests in the lower Angara River region. - Eurasian Soil Science 44(1): 49-55. [RLL List # 222 / Rec.# 32606]
    Abstract: [The microbial communities beneath mixed larch forests seemed to have restored activity after a fire before the communities living in sandy, lichen-covered soils.]
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  • Abbott, I./ M. R. Williams 2011: Silvicultural impacts in jarrah forest of Western Australia: Synthesis, evaluation, and policy implications of the Forestcheck monitoring project of 2001-2006. - Australian Forestry 74(4): 350-360. [RLL List # 226 / Rec.# 33759]
    Keywords: Biodiversity/ Disturbed forests/ Disturbed soils/ Jarrah/ Monitoring/ Reviews/ Silviculture/ Western Australia
    Abstract: This paper, the final in a series often papers that report the impact of silvicultural treatments (harvesting and associated burning) in jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) forest, reviews these papers and explores similarities and disparities. More than 2500 species were processed, dominated by macro-invertebrates, vascular flora and macrofungi. Few significant impacts were evident, and most species groups were resilient to the disturbances imposed. Regeneration stocking did not meet specified standards on two gap release and seven shelterwood grids subjected to silvicultural treatment in the period 1988-2002. Six treated grids had a retained basal area of more than 18 m2 ha-1, which obviated the need for further regeneration. More than 50 y may be needed for biological processes to reverse the increase in bulk density of soil caused during harvesting. Cryptogams (especially lichens) were the species group most sensitive to disturbance, although recovery of species richness was nearly complete 10 y after disturbance. For cryptogams and vascular flora, species recorded in only one grid (singletons) were more likely to occur on reference grids than on silviculturally treated grids. For all species groups studied, the imprint of harvesting 40 or more years earlier on species composition had become indistinguishable from that on grids never harvested. Soil nutrient status correlated with species richness for fungi on wood (negatively), light-trapped invertebrates (positively), birds (positively) and terrestrial vertebrates (frogs, reptiles and mammals, negatively). Silvicultural disturbance (timber harvesting and associated burning) correlated with species richness for fungi on wood (positively), terrestrial vertebrates (positively) and cryptogams (negatively). Time since the last (prescribed) fire did not correlate with any species group. Plant disease decreased species richness of light-trapped invertebrates by about 35%. Very few taxa were sufficiently widespread or sufficiently responsive to silvicultural disturbance to be of value as bio-indicators, demonstrating the superiority of biodiversity monitoring over bio-indicator monitoring. It is recommended that FORESTCHECK be expanded into a biological survey of the lower south-west of Western Australia.
    URL: http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-84855280321&partnerID=40&md5=70c2adaaa76bc7981ccf9802769f3ad0
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  • Agboke, A. A. & C. O. Esimone 2011: Antimicrobial evaluation of the interaction between methanol extract of the lichen, Ramalina farinacea (Ramalinacea) and Ampicilin against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. - Journal of Medicinal Plant Research 5(4): 644-648. [RLL List # 223 / Rec.# 32805]
    Abstract: Ampicillin is a member of the group of antibiotics called penicillin otherwise known as B-lactam drugs; it is a selective inhibitor of bacterial cell wall synthesis and therefore is active against growing bacteria. Ampicillin is one of the most widely prescribed antibiotics. It is considered as penicillin and is a close relative of amoxicillin. Unlike penicillin, ampicillin and amoxicillin can penetrate and prevent the growth of certain types of bacteria, called gram-negative bacteria. Ampicillin is used mainly to treat infections of the middle ear, sinuses, bladder, kidney, and uncomplicated gonorrhea. It is used intravenously to treat meningitis and other serious infections. The activities of this antibiotic were in some cases hindered by the b-lactamase producing resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrobial interaction screening of the methanol extract with ampicillin, reveled that most of the combination ratio of methanol extract and ampicillin shows synergism while few were additive and no indifference and antagonism. This shows that in the treatment of infections of S. aureus the combination of the methanol extract of Lichen, Ramalina farinacea and ampicilin can be used together to enhance potency of the ampicilin in some cases of infection by S. aureus.
    URL:
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  • Agboke, A., C. Jackson, M. Adedokun & M. A. Momoh 2011: Antimicrobial evaluation of the interaction between methanol extract of the lichen, Ramalina farinacea (Ramalinacea) [sic; "Ramalinaceae"] and Ampicilin against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. - African Journal of Biotechnology 10(12): 2314-2318. [RLL List # 223 / Rec.# 32806]
    Abstract: Antimicrobial interaction studies between methanol extract of lichen (Ramalina farinacea (I) ach. (Fam: Ramalinacea) and tetracycline, against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus was evaluated. Preliminary antimicrobial properties of the extract were evaluated. Antimicrobial interaction studies between the methanol extract of lichen in combination with tetracycline against strains of S. aureus I, J and K was carried out using checkerboard method. The preliminary antimicrobial screening revealed that the extract was effective against S. aureus J and K. The interaction of lichen methanol extract with tetracycline against S. aureus strain I at ratios 8:2, 7:3, 6:4 and 4:6 was not significantly different, while ratios 9:1 and 3:7 showed antagonism. However, the combination ratios of methanol extract and the antibiotic against S. aureus J shows synergism (8:2, 7:3, 6:4, 5:5, 4:6 and 1:9), while ratios 9:1, 3:7 and 2:8 exhibit indifference. Interaction of the methanol extract and tetracycline against strain K at ratios 8:2, 6:4, 4:6 and 1:9 showed synergism, while ratios 9:1, 7:3, 5:5, 3:7 and 1:9 were not significantly different in their interactions. This shows that, in the treatment of infections caused by strains I, J and K of S. aureus, the combination of the methanol extract of lichen (R. farinacea) and tetracycline can be used.
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  • Aguirre-Hudson, B./ I. Whitworth/ B. M. Spooner 2011: J. M. Despréaux' lichens from the Canary Islands and West Africa: an account of a 19th century collection found in an English archive. - Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 166: 185-211. [RLL List # 226 / Rec.# 33575]
    Abstract: This is an historical and descriptive account of 28 herbarium specimens, 27 lichens and an alga, found in the archives of Charles Chalcraft, a descendant of the Bedford family, who were dye manufacturers in Leeds, England, in the 19th century. The lichens comprise 13 different morphotypes collected in the Canary Islands and West Africa by the French botanist J. M. Despréaux between 1833 and 1839. The collections include samples of "Roccella fuciformis", "R. phycopsis" and "R. tinctoria" (including the fertile morphotype "R. canariensis"), "Ramalina crispatula" and "R. cupularis", two distinct morphotypes of "Sticta", "S. canariensis" and "S. dufouri", "Physconia enteroxantha", "Pseudevernia furfuracea var. ceratea" and "Pseudocyphellaria argyracea". The herbarium also includes authentic material of "Parmotrema tinctorum" and a probable syntype of "Seirophora scorigena". Most of these species are known as a source of the purple dye orchil, which was used to dye silk and wool.
    URL:
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  • Ahn, C./ E. Chang/ H. Kang 2011: Epiphytic macrolichens in Seoul: 35 years after the first lichen study in Korea. - Journal of Ecology and Field Biology 34(4): 381-391. [RLL List # 226 / Rec.# 33690]
    Keywords: Air pollutants/ Bioindicator/ Lichens/ Seoul/ Temporal and spatial variation
    Abstract: Many lichens have been used as bioindicators for air pollutants such as SO2. The first ecological study on lichens in Korea was conducted in 1975 by Kim and Lee, disclosing that areas adjacent to the center of Seoul were lichen deserts. Air quality in Seoul has improved significantly since the 1980s. However, the distribution of lichen species has not been reevaluated since then. We examined the spatial and temporal pattern of lichen distribution by selecting six (inner city green [ICG] and four (outer city green [OCG]) sites, based on the distance from the city center of Seoul and the land use pattern. The change in lichen distribution was related to yearly mean concentrations of SO2, NO2, and O3 for the years 1980-2009. Four and 13 lichen species were found in ICGs and OCGs, respectively. Although mean sample numbers per species were much higher in the former, species richness tended to increase with distance from the city center. Since 1980, SO2 has declined drastically to < 0.01 ppm in both ICGs and OCGs, indicating that SO2 is no longer a limiting factor for lichen establishment and growth. In contrast, NO2 has increased steadily for 20 years (1989-2009) and a considerable proportion of lichen species in both ICGs and OCGs are known as nitrophilic or pollution-tolerant species. Appearance of nitrophiles in both ICGs and OCGs and the dominance of a few lichen species in ICGs may reflect the effects of the increase in NO2. In contrast to SO2 and NO2, O3 was higher in OCGs, but it was difficult to identify a causal relationship between O3 and lichen distribution. © The Ecological Society of Korea.
    URL: http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-84856756336&partnerID=40&md5=f47fb100c5d876c9c794c8044f6c90c9
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  • Alm, T., M. Piirainen & V. Vange 2011: Etnobotaniske opptegnelser fra Skallelv i Vadsř, Finnmark – et glřtt av finske plantenavn og tilhřrende tradisjoner i Norge: Ethnobotanical notes from Skallelv i Vadsř¸ municipality, Finnmark county - A glimpse into Finnish plant names and traditions in Norway. - Blyttia 69(1): 37-56. [RLL List # 223 / Rec.# 32808]
    Abstract: Skallelv is a small village situated at the Varanger peninsula in easternmost Finnmark, NE Norway. The local population is of Finnish ethnic origin, and most are still fluent in Finnish. An ethnobotanical survey was carried out in 2006. About forty species, species groups or other ethnotaxonomical units, of vascular plants, bryophytes, algae, lichens and fungi had local vernacular names. Many were Finnish, but for some plants, people used Norwegian vernacular names, either instead of Finnish names, or as a supplement or parallell to these. The Norwegian names used were mostly widespread North Norwegian vernacular terms.
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  • Alpsoy, L./ A. Asian/ E. Kotan/ G. Agar/ M. Anar 2011: Protective role of two lichens in human lymphocytes in vitro. - Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 20(7): 1661-1666. [RLL List # 224 / Rec.# 33203]
    Keywords: Anti-oxidant enzymes/ Antigenotoxicity/ Lecanora muralis/ Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca/ aldehyde/ antagonism/ antioxidant/ concentration (composition)/ enzyme activity/ experimental study/ frequency analysis/ functional morphology/ genotoxicity/ lichen/ methanol/ species diversity
    Abstract: In this study, the antagonistic effects of methanol extracts of Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca (RME) and Lecanora muralis (LME) were studied against effects of aflatoxin Bi (AFBi)-induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity in human lymphocytes in vitro. Results showed that 5 and 10 uM concentrations of aflatoxin Bi increased the frequencies of sister chromatid exchange (SCE), micronuclei (MN) and malondialdehyde (MDA) level, whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities decreased. However, when 5 and 10 µg/ml concentrations of LME and RME were added to AFB1, the frequencies of SCE, MN and MDA level decreased but SOD and GPx activities increased. The results of this experiment have clearly shown that LME and RME have strong antioxidative and antigenotoxic effects, and may play a role in the anti-genotoxic activity mechanisms. © by PSP.
    URL: http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-80051743543&partnerID=40&md5=91529ebb559c41c2dfe27b4afc98e564
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  • Amo de Paz, G./ P. Cubas/ P. K. Divakar/ H. T. Lumbsch/ A. Crespo 2011: Origin and Diversification of Major Clades in Parmelioid Lichens (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) during the Paleogene Inferred by Bayesian Analysis. - PLoS One 6(12): e28161. [RLL List # 225 / Rec.# 33415]
    Abstract: There is a long-standing debate on the extent of vicariance and long-distance dispersal events to explain the current distribution of organisms, especially in those with small diaspores potentially prone to long-distance dispersal. Age estimates of clades play a crucial role in evaluating the impact of these processes. The aim of this study is to understand the evolutionary history of the largest clade of macrolichens, the parmelioid lichens (Parmeliaceae, Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota) by dating the origin of the group and its major lineages. They have a worldwide distribution with centers of distribution in the Neo- and Paleotropics, and semi-arid subtropical regions of the Southern Hemisphere. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using DNA sequences of nuLSU and mtSSU rDNA, and the protein-coding RPB1 gene. The three DNA regions had different evolutionary rates: RPB1 gave a rate two to four times higher than nuLSU and mtSSU. Divergence times of the major clades were estimated with partitioned BEAST analyses allowing different rates for each DNA region and using a relaxed clock model. Three calibrations points were used to date the tree: an inferred age at the stem of Lecanoromycetes, and two dated fossils: Parmelia in the parmelioid group, and Alectoria. Palaeoclimatic conditions and the palaeogeological area cladogram were compared to the dated phylogeny of parmelioid. The parmelioid group diversified around the K/T boundary, and the major clades diverged during the Eocene and Oligocene. The radiation of the genera occurred through globally changing climatic condition of the early Oligocene, Miocene and early Pliocene. The estimated divergence times are consistent with long-distance dispersal events being the major factor to explain the biogeographical distribution patterns of Southern Hemisphere parmelioids, especially for Africa-Australia disjunctions, because the sequential break-up of Gondwana started much earlier than the origin of these clades. However, our data cannot reject vicariance to explain South America-Australia disjunctions.
    – doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0028161

    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0028161
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  • Anawar, H. M., N. Canha & M. Do Carmo Freitas 2011: Evaluation of atmospheric particle dispersion at a contaminated mine using biomonitors. - International Journal of Environment and Health 5(1-2): 84-92. [RLL List # 223 / Rec.# 32809]
    Abstract: This study has carried out the assessment of magnitude of toxic elements contamination in and around the SĂŁo Domingos mining area, a copper-sulphide open pit mine, and atmospheric transport of above elements by using lichens and Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Samples of the epiphytic lichen Evernia prunastri and soils were collected. The concentrations of As, Sb, Fe and Zn were very high in all of the soils and lichens: the highest levels were recorded in the lichens sampled close to tailings pile sites and diluted with distance. The concentrations of As, Sb and other elements in the lichen were much higher than the regional background level reflecting the high magnitude of contamination. Patterns of bioaccumulation of elements throughout the study area were quite similar for widespread pollutants such as As, Sb, Zn and Fe. The results showed that lichens are important biomonitors of terrestrial and atmospheric pollution in mining-affected areas.
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  • Anil Kumar, H. S., T. R. Prashith Kekuda, K. S. Vinayaka, D. Swathi & T. M. Venugopal 2011: Anti-obesity (Pancreatic lipase inhibitory) activity of Everniastrum cirrhatum (Fr.) Hale (Parmeliaceae). - Pharmacognosy Journal 3: 65-68. [RLL List # 223 / Rec.# 32810]
    Abstract: Introduction: Obesity has increased at an alarming rate and is now a worldwide health problem. Everniastrum cirrhatum (Fr.) Hale (Parmeliaceae) is a foliose lichen and grow luxuriantly in tropical Himalayas, central India and higher altitudes of southern India. In this study, we report Anti-obesity activity, in terms of pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity, of methanol extract of E. cirrhatum for the first time. Methods: The powdered lichen material was extracted with methanol in soxhlet apparatus. The extract was tested for secondary metabolites by standard phytochemical tests and thin layer chromatography (TLC). Lipase enzyme was obtained from the chicken pancreas. Lipase inhibitory activity of different concentrations of methanol extract was determined in terms of inhibition of lipase activity using olive oil as substrate. Results: The extract was found to inhibit activity of chicken pancreatic lipase and the effect was found to be concentration dependent. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins and terpenoids. TLC revealed Atranorin, Salazinic acid and Protolichesterinic acid. Conclusion: The result of lipase inhibitory activity of the lichen in this study is promising. The inhibitory activity may be attributed to the presence of secondary metabolites. In suitable form, the lichen could find its application as anti-obesity agent. Further studies on isolation of active principles from the extract and their enzyme inhibitory activity are under investigation.
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  • Anshakova, V. V. 2011: Mechanochemical technology for producing of biocomplexes based on lichen material. - Russian Journal of Biopharmaceuticals 3(5): 32-41. [RLL List # 226 / Rec.# 33703]
    Keywords: Biocomplexes/ Lichens/ Mechanochemistry/ Physiologically active substances
    Abstract: The mechanochemical technology for producing of high-performance solid-state biocomplexes based on «universal active filler» which is a polymer lichen ?-oligosaccharide matrix with different kind of pharmakons (known pharmaceuticals, physiologically active substances of herbs, vitamin and microelement complexes, etc.) is developed. The application of «free solvent» processes based on natural poly-and oligosaccharides prolongates of the operation of active substance (pharmakon) and increases of its biological (incl. therapeutic) effect in a few times, while reducing the dose and toxicity.
    URL: http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-84856291900&partnerID=40&md5=f40fd1ff774f7a3e1ed67f9e80a5e7e4
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  • Aptroot, A. & F. Schumm 2011: Fruticose Roccellaceae - an anatomical-microscopical atlas and guide with a worldwide key and further notes on some crustose Roccellaceae or similar lichens.. - Soest, The Netherlands ; Wangen, Germany : The authors.. 375 pages pp. [RLL List # 223 / Rec.# 32812]
    Abstract: [New species: Roccella sanctae-helenae Aptroot & Schumm; new combination: Rocellina arboricol Follmann) Aptroot & Schumm.]
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  • Aptroot, A. & H. J. M. Sipman 2011: Sporodochiolichen, a new genus of tropical hyphomycetous lichens. - The Lichenologist 43(4): 357-362. [RLL List # 223 / Rec.# 32813]
    Abstract: [New species: Sporodochiolichen flavus , Sporodochiolichen lecanoricus , Sporodochiolichen papillatus , and Sporodochiolichen pigmentatus ; all species credited to Aptroot & Sipman.] The lichen genus Sporodochiolichen is installed to accommodate a group of four, so far undescribed, tropical corticolous lichen species with arthric conidia in discrete sporodochia. Three species are so far only known from Papua New Guinea; one is known from five countries on two continents and is probably pantropical.
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  • Aptroot, A. & H. Toetenel 2011: Korstmossen op aangevoerde iepen in het Westland. - Buxbaumiella 89: 49-54. [RLL List # 223 / Rec.# 32814]
    Abstract: [In Dutch.]
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  • Aptroot, A., B. Van de Vijver, M. Lebouvier & D. Ertz 2011: Lichens of Ile Amsterdam and Ile Saint Paul (TAAF, southern Indian Ocean). - Nova Hedwigia 92(3-4): 343-367. [RLL List # 223 / Rec.# 32815]
    Abstract: Abstract: Lichens collected in 2007 on Ile Amsterdam and Ile Saint Paul in the Indian Ocean are reported. The diversity is rather poor, with 77 and 40 species collected, respectively. Of those, the islands share 25 species. Caloplaca amsterdamensis Aptroot & Ertz is newly described. Two species, viz. Lecanora subsulphurata and Opegrapha consimillima are the only other endemic species known from these islands. The lichen flora is distinctly temperate to subtropical, with only a few subantarctic elements. Temperate oceanic islands in other oceans share significantly more species with Ile Saint Paul and/or Ile Amsterdam than the neighbouring subantarctic islands. All previously reports of lichens from these islands have been examined and cross-referenced, leading to the new synonymization of several species previously described from Ile Saint Paul, viz. Buellia sancti-pauli, Caloplaca fulgescens, Lecidea conioptoides, L. parasemopsis, L. sancti-pauli, and Verrucaria aethioboliza. It also transpired that the previous report of the genus Orceolina from Ile Saint Paul is incorrect, with the effect that the genus is still only known from Kerguelen. Nearly all species are new records for Ile Amsterdam and most are new for Ile Saint Paul. Some species, viz. Bacidia arnoldiana, B. egenula, B. fraxinea, C. limonia, C. oasis, C. ulcerosa, Fuscopannaria ignobilis, Pertusaria amarescens, Porina curnowii, Porpidia ochrolemma, Pyrenula laevigata, Scoliciosporum intrusum (with the new synonym S. camptosporum), and Verrucaria dolosa are reported for the first time from the Southern Hemisphere.
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  • Aptroot, A. 2011: De Warme schotelkorst (Lecanora garovaglii): een submediterraan korstmos nieuw voor Nederland. - Buxbaumiella 89: 46-48. [RLL List # 223 / Rec.# 32811]
    Abstract: [In Dutch.]
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  • Aptroot, A. 2011: Minimumareaalbepaling een bij muurplantenvegetatie [Detemination of the minimum area for analyses of vegetation]. - Stratiotes 42: 22-34. [RLL List # 225 / Rec.# 33456]
    Abstract: De meest gebruikte methode voor het beschrijven van vegetatie is die van het maken van vegetatieopnamen van een beperkte omvang, bij wijze van representatieve steekproef. Aan dergelijke opnamen worden doorgaans enkele minimum-eisen gesteld. Het proefvlak moet homogeen zijn, minstens de grootte van het minimumareaal hebben en alle aanwezige plantensoorten moeten gedetermineerd worden. De methoden verschillen onderling vooral in wat er verder genoteerd wordt, met name in de aantals- en/of oppervlakteschatting. English Translation: The most common method for describing vegetation is that of taking pictures of a limited vegetation, as a representative sample. Such recordings are usually some minimum requirements. The plot must be homogeneous, at least the size of the minimum area and all plant species present should be determined. The methods differ primarily in what is written further, particularly in the number and/or surface estimation.
    Notes: In Dutch
    URL:
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  • Aptroot, A. 2011: Mossen en korstmossen op aangevoerde olijfbomen en geďmporteerde stenige substraten [Mosses and lichens on introduced Olive trees with notes on further introduced mosses]. - Buxbaumiella 90: 31-37. [RLL List # 224 / Rec.# 33251]
    Abstract: Imported olive trees were checked for epiphytes in a number of garden centres. The introduced non-native mosses Fabronia pusilla and Zygodon catarinoi were repeatedly found in garden supply centres on olive trees which are imported from Spain. The introduced lichen Candelariella viae-lacteae was also found on one olive tree. All are mediterranean species not previously known from the Netherlands and not yet established as indigenous. The equally introduced non-native Fontinalis hypnoides was found in water in a large flower pot. Some other exotic species on display or even sold at garden supply centres are mentioned. Further records of introductions on rock include Racomitrium sudeticum from Zweden, Syntrichia inermis from Israel and Braunia spec., Platygyriella densa, and Grimmia longirostris from Peru. None of these species are at present regarded as belonging to the Dutch moss or lichen flora, but now that they have been introduced already they might become naturalized in the future.
    Notes: In Dutch with English abstract.
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  • Aptroot, A./ S. H. Iqbal 2011: Some lichens of Bangladesh. - The Bryologist 114(3): 466-468. [RLL List # 225 / Rec.# 33313]
    Abstract: Lichens collected from Bangladesh in 1968 and 2002 are reported, the first published account for the country. In all, 51 species could be identified, most of which are pantropical (75%), four are cosmopolitan, and one uncertain species is restricted to Eurasia. Only one species, Ocellularia keralensis, is probably restricted to the Indian subcontinent, while three are restricted to tropical Asia and three are palaeotropical. The lichen flora appears to be a poor, wet lowland tropical one.
    – doi:doi: 10.1639/0007-2745-114.3.466

    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-114.3.466
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  • Araújo, R. V. S., M. R. Melo-Júnior, E. I. C. Beltrăo, L. A. Mello, M. Iacomini, A. M. A. Carneiro-Leăo, L. B. Carvalho Jr & N. S. Santos-Magalhăes 2011: Evaluation of the antischistosomal activity of sulfated a-D-glucan from the lichen Ramalina celastri free and encapsulated into liposomes. - Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research 44(4): 311-318. [RLL List # 223 / Rec.# 32816]
    Abstract: The antischistosomal activity of the sulfated polysaccharide a-D-glucan (Glu.SO4) extracted from Ramalina celastri was evaluated after encapsulation into liposomes (Glu.SO4-LIPO) in Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice. The effect of treatment with Glu.SO4 and Glu.SO4-LIPO (10 mg/kg) on egg elimination, worm burden and hepatic granuloma formation was assessed using female albino Swiss mice, 35-40 days of age, weighing 25 ± 2 g, infected with 150 cercariae/animal (Biomphalaria glabrata, BH strain). Four groups (N = 10) were studied, two controls (empty liposomes and NaCl) and two treated groups (Glu.SO4-LIPO and Glu.SO4) using a single dose. Parasitological analysis revealed that Glu.SO4-LIPO was as efficient as Glu.SO4 in reducing egg elimination and worm burden. Treatment with free Glu.SO4 and Glu.SO4-LIPO induced a statistically significant reduction in the number of granulomas (62 and 63%, respectively). Lectin histochemistry showed that wheat germ agglutinin intensely stained the egg-granuloma system in all treated groups. On the other hand, peanut agglutinin stained cells in the control groups, but not in the treated groups. The present results suggest a correlation between the decreasing number of hepatic egg-granulomas and the glycosylation profile of the egg-granuloma system in animals treated with free Glu.SO4 or Glu.SO4-LIPO.
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  • Armaleo, D./ F. Lutzoni/ F. Collart/ S. Baker/ J. Magnuson/ O. Andresson/ D. Auberry/ D. Culley/ F. Dietrich/ I. Grigoriev/ B. Hodkinson/ S. Karpowicz/ A. Kuo/ P. Larsen/ F. Martin/ T. McDonald/ S. Merchant/ E. Morin/ O. Mueller/ E. Panisko/ M. V. Sanchez/ I. Small/ B. B. Xavier 2011: Systems Biology of Lichen Systems: Pure Cultures of Cladonia grayi and Lichen-Dominated Biological Soil Crusts. - In: : DOE Genomic Science: Systems Biology for Energy and Environment. Oak Ridge National Lab, Oak Ridge, TN, pp. 158-159. [RLL List # 224 / Rec.# 33159]
    URL: http://genomicscience.energy.gov/pubs/2011abstracts/2011GSPabstracts_webprint.pdf
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  • Armaleo, D./ X. Sun/ C. Culberson 2011: Insights from the first putative biosynthetic gene cluster for a lichen depside and depsidone. - Mycologia 103(4): 741-754. [RLL List # 224 / Rec.# 33066]
    Keywords: Cladonia grayi, depsides, depsidones, lichen fungi, metabolic gene clusters, polyketide synthases, secondary metabolites, symbiosis
    Abstract: The genes for polyketide synthases (PKSs), enzymes that assemble the carbon backbones of many secondary metabolites, often cluster with other secondary pathway genes. We describe here the first lichen PKS cluster likely to be implicated in the biosynthesis of a depside and a depsidone, compounds in a class almost exclusively produced by lichen fungi (mycobionts). With degenerate PCR with primers biased toward presumed PKS genes for depsides and depsidones we identified among the many PKS genes in Cladonia grayi four (CgrPKS13-16) potentially responsible for grayanic acid (GRA), the orcinol depsidone characteristic of this lichen. To single out a likely GRA PKS we compared mRNA and GRA induction in mycobiont cultures using the four candidate PKS genes plus three controls; only CgrPKS16 expression closely matched GRA induction. CgrPKS16 protein domains were compatible with orcinol depside biosynthesis. Phylogenetically CgrPKS16 fell in a new subclade of fungal PKSs uniquely producing orcinol compounds. In the C. grayi genome CgrPKS16 clustered with a CytP450 and an O-methyltransferase gene, appropriately matching the three compounds in the GRA pathway. Induction, domain organization, phylogeny and cluster pathway correspondence independently indicated that the CgrPKS16 cluster is most likely responsible for GRA biosynthesis. Specifically we propose that (i) a single PKS synthesizes two aromatic rings and links them into a depside, (ii) the depside to depsidone transition requires only a cytochrome P450 and (iii) lichen compounds evolved early in the radiation of filamentous fungi.
    – doi:10.3852/10-335

    URL: http://www.mycologia.org/cgi/content/abstract/103/4/741/
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  • Armstrong, R. A. 2011: The biology of the crustose lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum. - Symbiosis 53: 53-68. [RLL List # 226 / Rec.# 33584]
    Keywords: RHIZOCARPON GEOGRAPHICUM/ LICHENIZATION/ PRIMARY AREOLAE/ RADIAL GROWTH RATE/ GROWTH-RATE SIZE CURVE/ LICHENOMETRY
    Abstract: The crustose lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum (L.) DC. comprises yellow-green lichenized areolae which develop and grow on the surface of a non-lichenized fungal hypothallus, the latter extending beyond the edge of the areolae to form a marginal ring. The hypothallus advances very slowly and the considerable longevity of R. geographicum, especially in Arctic and Alpine environments, has been exploited by geologists in dating the exposure age of rock surfaces (lichenometry). This review explores various aspects of the biology of R. geographicum including: (1) structure and symbionts, (2) lichenization, (3) development of areolae, (4) radial growth rates (RaGR), (5) growth physiology, (6) changes in RaGR with thallus size (growth rate-size curve), (7) maturity and senescence, and (8) aspects of ecology. Lichenization occurs when fungal hyphae become associated with a compatible species of the alga Trebouxia, commonly found free-living on the substratum. Similarly, %91primary%92 areolae develop from free-living algal cells trapped by the advancing hypothallus. The shape of the growth rate-size curve of R. geographicum is controversial but may exhibit a phase of decreasing growth in larger thalli. Low rates of translocation of carbohydrate to the hypothallus together with allocation for stress resistance results in very slow RaGR, a low demand for nutrients, hence, the ability of R. geographicum to colonize more extreme environments. Several aspects of the biology of R. geographicum have implications for lichenometry including early development, mortality rates, the shape of the growth-rate size curve, and competition.
    URL:
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  • Armstrong, R. A. 2011: The biology of the lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum. - In: Berhardt, L. V.: Advances in Medicine and Biology, Vol. 24. Nova Science, Hauppauge, NY, pp. 227-245. [RLL List # 225 / Rec.# 33351]
    Keywords: AREOLAE/ HYPOTHALLUS/ RADIAL GROWTH RATE/ GROWTH RATE-SIZE CURVE/ ALLELOPATHY
    Abstract: Rhizocarpon geographicum (L.) DC. is one of the most widely distributed species of crustose lichens. This unusual organism comprises yellow-green areolae that contain the algal symbiont which develop and grow on the surface of a non-lichenized, fungal hypothallus that extends beyond the margin of the areolae to form a marginal ring. This species grows exceptionally slowly with annual radial growth rates (RGR) as low as 0.07 mm yr-1 and its considerable longevity has been exploited by geologists in the development of methods of dating the age of exposure of rock surfaces and glacial moraines (lichenometry). Recent research has established some aspects of the basic biology of this important and interesting organism. This chapter describes the general structure of R. geographicum, how the areolae and hypothallus develop, why the lichen grows so slowly, the growth rate-size curve, and some aspects of the ecology of R. geographicum including whether the lichen can inhibit the growth of its neighbours by chemical means (allelopathy). Finally, the importance of R. geographicum in direct and indirect lichenometry is reviewed.
    URL:
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  • Armstrong, RA 2011: The biology of the crustose lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum. - Symbiosis 53: 53-68. [RLL Suppl. Rec.# 548]
    Keywords: RHIZOCARPON GEOGRAPHICUM/ LICHENIZATION/ PRIMARY AREOLAE/ RADIAL GROWTH RATE/ GROWTH-RATE SIZE CURVE/ LICHENOMETRY
    Abstract: The crustose lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum (L.) DC. comprises yellow-green lichenized areolae which develop and grow on the surface of a non-lichenized fungal hypothallus, the latter extending beyond the edge of the areolae to form a marginal ring. The hypothallus advances very slowly and the considerable longevity of R. geographicum, especially in Arctic and Alpine environments, has been exploited by geologists in dating the exposure age of rock surfaces (lichenometry). This review explores various aspects of the biology of R. geographicum including: (1) structure and symbionts, (2) lichenization, (3) development of areolae, (4) radial growth rates (RaGR), (5) growth physiology, (6) changes in RaGR with thallus size (growth rate-size curve), (7) maturity and senescence, and (8) aspects of ecology. Lichenization occurs when fungal hyphae become associated with a compatible species of the alga Trebouxia, commonly found free-living on the substratum. Similarly, %91primary%92 areolae develop from free-living algal cells trapped by the advancing hypothallus. The shape of the growth rate-size curve of R. geographicum is controversial but may exhibit a phase of decreasing growth in larger thalli. Low rates of translocation of carbohydrate to the hypothallus together with allocation for stress resistance results in very slow RaGR, a low demand for nutrients, hence, the ability of R. geographicum to colonize more extreme environments. Several aspects of the biology of R. geographicum have implications for lichenometry including early development, mortality rates, the shape of the growth-rate size curve, and competition.
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  • Armstrong, RA 2011: The biology of the lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum. - In: Berhardt, LV: Advances in Medicine and Biology. Nova Science, pp. 227-245. [RLL Suppl. Rec.# 530]
    Keywords: AREOLAE/ HYPOTHALLUS/ RADIAL GROWTH RATE/ GROWTH RATE-SIZE CURVE/ ALLELOPATHY
    Abstract: Rhizocarpon geographicum (L.) DC. is one of the most widely distributed species of crustose lichens. This unusual organism comprises yellow-green %91areolae%92 that contain the algal symbiont which develop and grow on the surface of a non-lichenized, fungal %91hypothallus%92 that extends beyond the margin of the areolae to form a marginal ring. This species grows exceptionally slowly with annual radial growth rates (RGR) as low as 0.07 mm yr-1 and its considerable longevity has been exploited by geologists in the development of methods of dating the age of exposure of rock surfaces and glacial moraines (%91lichenometry%92). Recent research has established some aspects of the basic biology of this important and interesting organism. This chapter describes the general structure of R. geographicum, how the areolae and hypothallus develop, why the lichen grows so slowly, the growth rate-size curve, and some aspects of the ecology of R. geographicum including whether the lichen can inhibit the growth of its neighbours by chemical means (%91allelopathy%92). Finally, the importance of R. geographicum in direct and indirect lichenometry is reviewed.
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  • Armstrong, RA/ Bradwell, T 2011: Growth of foliose lichens: A review. - Symbiosis 53: 1-16. [RLL Suppl. Rec.# 513]
    Keywords: RADIAL GROWTH RATE/ DRY WEIGHT GAIN/ / GROWTH MODELS/ AGING AND REGENERATION/ THALLUS SYMMETRY
    Abstract: This review considers various aspects of the growth of foliose lichens including early growth and development, variation in radial growth rate (RaGR) of different species, growth to maturity, lobe growth variation, senescence and fragmentation, growth models, the influence of environmental variables, and the maintenance of thallus symmetry. The data suggest that a foliose lichen thallus is essentially a %91colony%92 in which the individual lobes exhibit a considerable degree of autonomy in their growth processes. During development, recognisable juvenile thalli are usually formed by 15 months to 4 years while most mature thalli exhibit RaGR between 1 and 5 mm yr-1. RaGR within a species is highly variable. The growth rate-size curve of a foliose lichen thallus may result from growth processes that take place at the tips of individual lobes together with size-related changes in the intensity of competition for space between the marginal lobes. Radial growth and growth in mass is influenced by climatic and microclimatic factors and also by substratum factors such as rock and bark texture, chemistry, and nutrient enrichment. Possible future research topics include: (1) measuring fast growing foliose species through life, (2) the three dimensional changes that occur during lobe growth, (3) the cellular changes that occur during regeneration, growth, and division of lobes, and (4) the distribution and allocation of the major lichen carbohydrates within lobes.
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  • Arslan, B./ S. Öztürk/ S. Oran 2011: Lecanora, Phaeophyscia and Rinodina species new to Turkey. - Mycotaxon 116: 49-52. [RLL List # 224 / Rec.# 33243]
    Keywords: Ascomycota/ Bursa/ Çanakkale/ Lichens
    Abstract: Four lichenized fungi (Lecanora jamesii, L. juniperina, Phaeophyscia hirsuta, and Rinodina orculata) are reported for the first time from Turkey. Comments on their habitat, substrate, and morphological and anatomical features are provided. © 2011. Mycotaxon, Ltd.
    – doi: 10.5248/116.49

    URL: http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-80052950570&partnerID=40&md5=b5163f6994e8e12394f4afe9771290ff
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  • Arup, U./ P. P. G. Van Den Boom 2011: Three new dark-fruited Caloplaca species from Cape Verde. - Bibliotheca Lichenologica 106: 1-6. [RLL List # 225 / Rec.# 33462]
    Notes: New species: Caloplaca caesiosorediata Arup & van den Boom, C. catillarioides Arup & van den Boom, and C. caesioisidiata Arup & van den Boom
    URL:
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  • Arup, U. 2011: Contibutions to the knowledge of Caloplaca in the Nordic countries. - Graphis Scripta 23(1): 10-20. [RLL List # 226 / Rec.# 33538]
    Genera/Families: Caloplaca
    URL:
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  • Arup, U./ L. Fröberg/ L. Pettersson 2011: Placidium umbrinum - a pyrenocarpous species new to northern Europe. - Graphis Scripta 23(2): 42-46. [RLL List # 226 / Rec.# 33547]
    Genera/Families: Placidium/Catapyrenium
    Countries/Continents: Sweden
    URL:
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  • Asplund, J. 2011: Chemical races of Lobaria pulmonaria differ in palatability to gastropods. - The Lichenologist 43(5): 491-494. [RLL List # 224 / Rec.# 33095]
    Abstract: [Short communication.]
    – doi:10.1017/S0024282911000387

    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0024282911000387
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  • Asplund, J. 2011: Snails avoid the medulla of Lobaria pulmonaria and L. scrobiculata due to presence of secondary compounds. - Fungal Ecology 4(5): 356-358. [RLL List # 224 / Rec.# 33104]
    Keywords: Cochlodina laminata/ Gastropoda/ Lichen-invertebrate interactions/ Lichenized fungi/ Stictic acid
    Abstract: Lichens are frequently grazed by various invertebrates, such as snails and slugs. However, these gastropods discriminate between the various layers of the lichen thallus. Likewise, carbon based secondary compounds (CBSCs), some of which are known to deter lichenivores, are unevenly distributed between the various layers. In this study, the degree of rejection of medullary CBSCs by gastropods is investigated. The snail Cochlodina laminata was offered the lichens Lobaria pulmonaria and L. scrobiculata with and without CBSCs. The secondary compounds were removed by rinsing dry thalli in acetone. The snails completely avoided the medulla of thalli with natural levels of CBSCs. However, they grazed through all layers perpendicularly after these compounds had been removed. Hence, the medullary compounds restrict feeding by gastropods to the cortical and sometimes also the photobiont layer. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and The British Mycological Society.
    URL: http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-79960622500&partnerID=40&md5=457d838b8788a4d65338ada09745cc97
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  • Association française de Lichénologie 2011: Les lichens: un enjeu pour la biodiversité du Finistčre [Lichens: a challenge for biodiversity in Finistčre]. - Quimper : Conseil Geěneěral du FinisteĚre. pp. [RLL List # 233 / Rec.# 35052]
    Notes: In French.
    URL:
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