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Divakar, P.K./ Crespo, A./ Kraichak, E./ Leavitt, S.D./ Singh, G./ Schmitt, I./ Lumbsch, H.T. 2017: Using a temporal phylogenetic method to harmonize family- and genus-level classification in the largest clade of lichen-forming fungi. - Fungal Diversity 84: 101-114. [RLL List # 250 / Rec.# 38818]
Abstract: Although classification at supra-specific ranks is inherently arbitrary, comparable taxonomic ranks within clades can facilitate more consistent classifications and objective comparisons among taxa. Different circumscriptions of the hyper-diverse lichen-forming fungal family Parmeliaceae and widely different generic circumscriptions among authors have been proposed. For this study, we use a recently developed temporal approach that uses time-calibrated chronograms to identify temporal bands for specific ranks in Parmeliaceae and allied groups with the overarching goal of establishing a consistent, stable classification. A data set of 330 species, representing 73 genera in the family and 52 species of related families was used to address the circumscription of Parmeliaceae and its genera following the proposed temporal approach. Based on the results of this study, we propose a revised, temporal-based classification for Parmeliaceae, including all clades that share a common ancestor 102.13–112.88 Ma for families and a time window of 29.45–32.55 Ma for genera. Forty-five of the currently accepted genera in Parmeliaceae were supported in their current circumscription. Two subfamilies are accepted within Parmeliaceae: Protoparmelioideae Divakar et al. subfam. nov., including Protoparmelia and the resurrected genus Maronina, and Parmelioideae, including the bulk of genera in the family. The new genus Austromelanelixia Divakar et al. is proposed to accommodate a clade of southern Hemisphere species previously included in Melanelixia. Eumitria and tentatively Dolichousnea are resurrected as genera separate from Usnea. The following genera are reduced to synonymy: Allocetraria, Cetrariella, Usnocetraria, and Vulpicida with Cetraria; Arctocetraria, Cetreliopsis, Flavocetraria, Kaernefeltia, Masonhalea, Tuckermanella, and Tuckermannopsis with Nephromopsis; and the lichenicolous genera Nesolechia and Raesaenenia with the lichen-forming genera Punctelia and Protousnea, respectively. A total of 47 new combinations and three new names at the species level are proposed.
– doi:10.1007/s13225-017-0379-z

Notes: New: Austromelanelixia Divakar, Crespo & Lumbsch (type Au. piliferella), Au. calva (Essl.) Divakar, Crespo & Lumbsch (≡ Pa. calva Essl.), Au. fuscosorediata (Essl.) Divakar, Crespo & Lumbsch (≡ Parmelia. fuscosorediata Essl.), Au. glabratuloides (Essl.) Divakar, Crespo & Lumbsch (≡ Pa. glabratuloides Essl.), Au. piliferella (Essl.) Divakar, Crespo & Lumbsch (≡ Pa. piliferella Essl.), Au. subglabra (Räs.) Divakar, Crespo & Lumbsch (≡ Pa. subaurifera var. subglabra Räs.), Cetraria corrugata (R.F.Wang, X.L.Wei & J.C.Wei) Divakar, Crespo & Lumbsch (≡ Allocetraria. corrugata R.F.Wang, X.L.Wei & J.C.Wei), Cetraria endochrysea (Lynge) Divakar, Crespo & Lumbsch (≡ Dactylina endochrysea Lynge), Cetraria flavonigrescens (A.Thell & Randlane) Divakar, Crespo & Lumbsch (≡ Al. flavonigrescens A.Thell & Randlane), Cetraria isidiigera (Kurok. & M.J.Lai) Divakar, Crespo & Lumbsch (≡ Al. isidiigera Kurok. & M.J.Lai), Cetraria laii Divakar, Crespo & Lumbsch (≡ Evernia stracheyi C.Bab.), Cetraria sinensis (X.Q.Gao) Divakar, Crespo & Lumbsch (≡ Al. sinensis X.Q.Gao), Cetraria wangii Divakar, Crespo & Lumbsch (≡ Al. yunnanensis R.F.Wang, L.S.Wang & J.C. Wei non C. yunnanensis (Nyl.) Zahlbr.), Cetraria weii Divakar, Crespo & Lumbsch (≡ Al. capitata R.F.Wang, L.S.Wang & J.C.Wei non C. capitata Lynge), Maronina badiola (Müll. Arg.) Divakar, Crespo & Lumbsch (≡ Lecanora badiola Müll. Arg.), M. capitata (Lendemer) Divakar, Crespo & Lumbsch (≡ Protoparmelia capitata Lendemer), M. corallifera (Kantvilas & Papong) Divakar, Crespo & Lumbsch (≡ M. orientalis var. corallifera Kantvilas & Papong), M. isidiata (Diederich, Aptroot & Sérus.) Divakar, Crespo & Lumbsch (≡ Pr. isidiata Diederich, Aptroot & Sérus.), M. microspora (Córdova-Chávez, Aptroot & Cáceres) Divakar, Crespo & Lumbsch (≡ Pr. microspora Córdova-Chávez, Aptroot & Cáceres, M. pulchra (Diederich, Aptroot & Sérus.) Divakar, Crespo & Lumbsch (≡ Pr. pulchra Diederich, Aptroot & Sérus.), Nephromopsis americana (Spreng.) Divakar, Crespo & Lumbsch (≡ Nephroma americana Spreng.), Nephromopsis andrejevii (Oxner) Divakar, Crespo & Lumbsch (≡ Cetraria andrejevii Oxner), Nephromopsis arizonica (Essl.) Divakar, Crespo & Lumbsch (≡ Tuckermanella arizonica Essl.), Nephromopsis aurescens (Tuck.) Divakar, Crespo & Lumbsch (≡ Cetraria aurescens Tuck.), Nephromopsis chlorophylla (Willd.) Divakar, Crespo & Lumbsch (≡ Lichen chlorophyllus Willd.), Nephromopsis coralligera (W.A.Weber) Divakar, Crespo & Lumbsch (≡ Cetraria fendleri f. coralligera W.A.Weber), Nephromopsis culbersonii (Hale) Divakar, Crespo & Lumbsch (≡ Cetraria culbersonii Hale), Nephromopsis cucullata (Bellardi) Divakar, Crespo & Lumbsch (≡ Lichen cucullatus Bellardi), Nephromopsis fendleri (Nyl.) Divakar, Crespo & Lumbsch (≡ Platysma fendleri Nyl.), Nephromopsis gilva (Asahina) Divakar, Crespo & Lumbsch (≡ Cetraria gilva Asahina), Nephromopsis iberica (Crespo & Barreno) Divakar, Crespo & Lumbsch (≡ Cetraria iberica Crespo & Barreno), Nephromopsis inermis (Nyl.) Divakar, Crespo & Lumbsch (≡ Cetraria crispa f. inermis Nyl.), Nephromopsis laeteflava (Zahlbr.) Divakar, Crespo & Lumbsch (≡ Cetraria laeteflava Zahlbr.), Nephromopsis merrillii (Du Rietz) Divakar, Crespo & Lumbsch (≡ Cetraria merrillii Du Rietz), Nephromopsis microphyllica (W.L.Culb. & C.F.Culb.) Divakar, Crespo & Lumbsch (≡ Cetraria microphyllica W.L.Culb. & C.F.Culb.), Nephromopsis nigricascens (Nyl.) Divakar, Crespo & Lumbsch (≡ Platysma nigricascens Nyl.), Nephromopsis nivalis (L.) Divakar, Crespo & Lumbsch (≡ Lichen nivalis L.), Nephromopsis orbata (Nyl.) Divakar, Crespo & Lumbsch (≡ Platysma orbatum Nyl.), Nephromopsis papuae (Randlane & Saag) Divakar, Crespo & Lumbsch (≡ Cetreliopsis papuae Randlane & Saag), Nephromopsis pseudoweberi (Essl.) Divakar, Crespo & Lumbsch (≡ Tuckermanella seudoweberi Essl.), Nephromopsis rickieae (Essl.) Divakar, Crespo & Lumbsch (≡ Tuckermanella rickieae Essl.), Nephromopsis richardsonii (Hook.) Divakar, Crespo & Lumbsch (≡ Cetraria richardsonii Hook.), Nephromopsis sphaerosporella (Müll. Arg.) Divakar, Crespo & Lumbsch (≡ Pa. sphaerosporella Müll. Arg.), Nephromopsis subalpina (Imshaug) Divakar, Crespo & Lumbsch (≡ Cetraria subalpina Imshaug), Nephromopsis subfendleri (Essl.) Divakar, Crespo & Lumbsch (≡ Cetraria subfendleri Essl.), Nephromopsis thailandica (Elix & M.J.Lai) Divakar, Crespo & Lumbsch (≡ Cetreliopsis thailandica Elix & M.J. Lai), Nephromopsis tuckermanii (Tuck.) Divakar, Crespo & Lumbsch (≡ Cetraria californica Tuck. non Nephromopsis californica Gyeln.), Nephromopsis ulophylloides (Asahina) Divakar, Crespo & Lumbsch (≡ Cetraria ulophylloides Asahina), Nephromopsis weberi (Essl.) Divakar, Crespo & Lumbsch (≡ Cetraria weberi Essl.), Protousnea huuskonenii (Räsänen) Divakar, Crespo & Lumbsch (≡ Phacopsis huuskonenii Räsänen), Punctelia oxyspora (Tul.) Divakar, Crespo, D.L.Hawksw. & Lumbsch (≡ Abrothallus oxysporus Tul.), Protoparmelioideae Divakar, Crespo & Lumbsch (type Pr.M. Choisy). Allocetraria Kurok. & M.J.Lai, Cetrariella Kärnefelt & Au. Thell, Usnocetraria M.J.Lai & J.C.Wei and Vulpicida J.E.Mattsson & M.J.Lai placed in synonymy with Cetraria Ach. Ahtiana Goward, Arctocetraria Kärnefelt & A.Thell, Cetrariopsis Kurok., Cetreliopsis M.J.Lai, Flavocetrariella Awasthi, Kaernefeltia A.Thell & Goward, Masonhalea Kärnefelt, Tuckermanella Essl., Tuckermannopsis Gyeln., Tuckneraria Randlane & A.Thell placed in synonymy with Nephromopsis Müll. Arg. Nesolechia A.Massal. placed in synonymy with Punctelia Krog. Raesaenenia D. Hawksw. placed in synonymy with Protousnea (Motyka) Krog.


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