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  • Kistenich, S./ Timdal, E./ Bendiksby, M./ Ekman, S. 2018: Molecular systematics and character evolution in the lichen family Ramalinaceae (Ascomycota: Lecanorales). - Taxon 67(5): 871-904. [RLL List # 256 / Rec.# 40757]
    Abstract: The Ramalinaceae is the fourth-largest family of lichenized ascomycetes with 42 genera and 913 species exhibiting considerable morphological variation. Historically, generic boundaries in the Ramalinaceae were primarily based on morphological characters. However, molecular systematic investigations of subgroups revealed that current taxonomy is at odds with evolutionary relationships. Tropical members of the family remain particularly understudied, including the large genus Phyllopsora. We have generated and collected multilocus sequence data (mtSSU, nrITS, nrLSU, RPB1, RPB2) for 149 species associated with the Ramalinaceae and present the first comprehensive molecular phylogeny of the family. We used ancestral state reconstructions on our molecular family phylogeny to trace the evolution of character states. Our results indicate that the Ramalinaceae have arisen from an ancestor with long, multiseptate ascospores living in humid temperate forests, and that the phyllopsoroid growth form has evolved multiple times within the family. Based on our results using integrative taxonomy, we discuss sister-relations and taxon-delimitation within five well-supported clades: The Bacidia, Biatora-, Ramalina-, Rolfidium-, and Toninia-groups. We reduce six genera into synonymy and make 49 new nomenclatural combinations. The genera Bacidia, Phyllopsora, Physcidia and Toninia are polyphyletic and herein split into segregates. We describe the two genera Bellicidia and Parallopsora and resurrect the genera Bibbya, Kiliasia, Sporacestra, and Thalloidima. According to our new circumscription, which also includes some additional changes, the family Ramalinaceae now comprises 39 genera.
    – doi:10.12705/675.1

    Notes: New: Bacidia cylindrophora (Taylor) Kistenich, Timdal, Bendiksby & S.Ekman (≡ Parmelia cylindrophora Taylor), Bacidina lacerata (Timdal) Kistenich, Timdal, Bendiksby & S.Ekman (≡ Phyllopsora lacerata Timdal), Bacidina medialis (Tuck. ex Nyl.) Kistenich, Timdal, Bendiksby & S.Ekman (≡ Lecidea medialis Tuck. ex Nyl.), Bellicidia Kistenich, Timdal, Bendiksby & S.Ekman (type B. incompta), Bellicidia incompta (Borrer) Kistenich, Timdal, Bendiksby & S.Ekman (≡ Lecidea incompta Borrer), Biatora oxneri (S.Y.Kondr., Lőkös & Hur) Printzen & Kistenich (≡ Ivanpisutia oxneri S.Y.Kondr., Lőkös & Hur), Bibbya albomarginata (H.Kilias & Gotth.Schneid.) Kistenich, Timdal, Bendiksby & S.Ekman (≡ Lobiona albomarginata H.Kilias & Gotth.Schneid.), Bibbya australis (Timdal) Timdal (≡ Toninia australis Timdal), Bibbya austroafricana (Timdal) Timdal (≡ Toninia austroafricana Timdal), Bibbya bullata (Meyen & Flot.) Kistenich, Timdal, Bendiksby & S.Ekman (≡ Lecidea bullata Meyen & Flot.), Bibbya glaucocarpa (Timdal) Timdal (≡ Toninia glaucocarpa Timdal), Bibbya hosseusiana (Gyeln.) Timdal (≡ Toninia hosseusiana Gyeln.), Bibbya lutosa (Ach.) Kistenich, Timdal, Bendiksby & S.Ekman (≡ Lecidea lutosa Ach.), Bibbya ruginosa (Tuck.) Kistenich, Timdal, Bendiksby & S.Ekman (≡ Lecidea ruginosa Tuck.), Bibbya ruginosa subsp. pacifica (Timdal) Timdal (≡ Toninia ruginosa subsp. pacifica Timdal), Bibbya subcircumspecta (Coppins) S.Ekman (≡ Bacidia subcircumspecta Coppins), Bibbya vermifera (Nyl.) Kistenich, Timdal, Bendiksby & S.Ekman (≡ Lecidea vermifera Nyl.), Kiliasia granulosa (Szatala) Timdal (≡ Thalloidima granulosum Szatala), Kiliasia nordlandica (Th.Fr.) Kistenich, Timdal, Bendiksby & S.Ekman (≡ Toninia nordlandica Th.Fr.), Kiliasia pennina (Schaer.) Kistenich, Timdal, Bendiksby & S.Ekman (≡ Lecidea pennina Schaer.), Kiliasia sculpturata (H.Magn.) Kistenich, Timdal, Bendiksby & S.Ekman (≡ Catillaria sculpturata H. Magn.), Kiliasia superioris (Timdal) Timdal (≡ Toninia superioris Timdal), Niebla melanothrix (Laurer) Kistenich, Timdal, Bendiksby & S.Ekman (≡ Ramalina melanothrix Laurer), Parallopsora Kistenich, Timdal & Bendiksby (type P. leucophyllina), Parallopsora brakoae (Timdal) Kistenich, Timdal & Bendiksby (≡ Phyllopsora brakoae Timdal), Parallopsora labriformis (Timdal) Kistenich, Timdal & Bendiksby (≡ Phyllopsora labriformis Timdal), Parallopsora leucophyllina (Nyl.) Kistenich, Timdal & Bendiksby(≡ Lecidea leucophyllina Nyl.), Phyllopsora gossypina (Sw.) Kistenich, Timdal, Bendiksby & S.Ekman (≡ Lichen gossypinus Sw.), Phyllopsora pyxinoides (Nyl.) Kistenich, Timdal, Bendiksby & S.Ekman (≡ Crocynia pyxinoides Nyl.), Rolfidium bumammum (Nyl.) Kistenich, Timdal, Bendiksby & S.Ekman (≡ Lecidea bumamma Nyl.), Rolfidium nigropallidum (Nyl.) Kistenich, Timdal, Bendiksby & S.Ekman (≡ Lecidea nigropallida Nyl.), Scutula circumspecta (Vain.) Kistenich, Timdal, Bendiksby & S.Ekman (≡ Lecidea bacillifera var. circumspecta Vain.), Scutula effusa (Rabenh.) Kistenich, Timdal, Bendiksby & S.Ekman (≡ Bilimbia effuse Rabenh.), Sporacestra pertexta (Nyl.) Stapnes & Timdal (≡ Lecidea pertexta Nyl.), Thalloidima arcticum (Timdal) Timdal (≡ Toninia arctica Timdal), Thalloidima collematicola (Timdal) Timdal (≡ Toninia collematicola Timdal), Thalloidima ioen (Herre) S.Ekman & Timdal (≡ Bacidia ioessa Herre), Thalloidima leptogii (Timdal) Timdal (≡ Toninia leptogii Timdal), Thalloidima massatum (Tuck.) Kistenich, Timdal, Bendiksby & S.Ekman (≡ Lecidea massata Tuck.), Thalloidima opuntioides (Vill.) Kistenich, Timdal, Bendiksby & S.Ekman (≡ Lichen opuntioides Vill.), Thalloidima physaroides (Opiz) Kistenich, Timdal, Bendiksby & S.Ekman (≡ Lecidea physaroides Opiz), Thalloidima sedifolium (Scop.) Kistenich, Timdal, Bendiksby & S.Ekman (≡ Lichen sedifolius Scop.), Thalloidima subdiffractum (Timdal) Timdal (≡ Toninia subdiffracta Timdal), Toninia populorum (A.Massal.) Kistenich, Timdal, Bendiksby & S.Ekman (≡ Arthrosporum populorum A.Massal.), Toniniopsis aromatica (Sm.) Kistenich, Timdal, Bendiksby & S.Ekman (≡ Lichen aromaticus Sm.), Toniniopsis coelestina (Anzi) Kistenich, Timdal, Bendiksby & S.Ekman (≡ Bacidia coelestina Anzi), Toniniopsis cretica (Timdal) Timdal (≡ Toninia cretica Timdal), Toniniopsis illudens (Nyl.) Kistenich, Timdal, Bendiksby & S.Ekman (≡ Lecidea illudens Nyl.), Toniniopsis mesoidea (Nyl.) Timdal (≡ Lecidea mesoidea Nyl.), Toniniopsis subincompta (Nyl.) Kistenich, Timdal, Bendiksby & S.Ekman (≡ Lecidea subincompta Nyl.), Toniniopsis verrucarioides (Nyl.) Kistenich, Timdal, Bendiksby & S.Ekman (≡ Lecidea aromatic var. verrucarioides Nyl.). Lectotypified: Bayrhofferia Trevis. (w/ Bayrhofferia spadicea (Flot.) Trevis.), ≡ Lecidea illudens Nyl., Toninia submexicana B.de Lesd. Neotypified: Bacidia ioessa Herre
    URL: https://www.ingentaconnect.com/contentone/iapt/tax/2018/00000067/00000005/art00005;jsessionid=4ptn6te0aiejg.x-ic-live-01
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