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  • Lücking, R./ Chaves, J.L./ Sipman, H.J.M./ Umaña, L./ Aptroot, A. 2008: A first assessment of the Ticolichen biodiversity inventory in Costa Rica: The genus Graphis, with notes on the genus Hemithecium (Ascomycota: Ostropales: Graphidaceae). - Fieldiana, Botany, new series 46: 1-126. [RLL List # 242 / Rec.# 37423]
    Abstract: The genus Graphis sensu Staiger is treated as a further contribution to the TICOLICHEN biodiversity inventory in Costa Rica. Graphis s.str. is the largest tropical lichen genus, with more than 300 accepted species worldwide, and also the largest in Costa Rica, with a total of 115 species recognized in this work. The following 25 species are described as new: Graphis altamirensis Sipman & Lücking sp. nov., G. argentata Lücking & Umaña sp. nov., G. bettinae Lücking, Umaña, Chaves & Sipman sp. nov., G. duplicatoinspersa Lücking sp. nov., G. firferi Lücking sp. nov., G. flavoaltamirensis Sipman & Lücking sp. nov., G. flavominiata Moncada & Lücking sp. nov., G. fournierii Lizano & Lücking sp. nov., G. gomezii Lücking, Will-Wolf & Umaña, G. gregmuelleri Sipman & Lücking, sp. nov., G. hypocrellina Lücking & Chaves sp. nov., G. inspersostictica Sipman & Lücking sp. nov., G. litoralis Lücking, Sipman & Chaves sp. nov., G. mirabilis Lücking, Sipman, Umaña & Chaves sp. nov., G. nudaeformis Lücking sp. nov., G. oryzaecarpa Lücking sp. nov., G. paradisserpens Sipman & Lücking sp. nov., G. paraserpens Lizano & Lücking sp. nov., G. pittieri Lücking, Umaña, Sipman & Chaves sp. nov., G. pseudocinerea Lücking & Umaña sp. nov., G. pseudoserpens Chaves & Lücking sp. nov., G. subflexibilis Lücking & Chaves sp. nov., G. subruiziana Sipman, Chaves & Lücking sp. nov., G. subturgidula Lücking & Sipman sp. nov., and G. tenoriensis Chaves & Lücking sp. nov. Graphis immersoides Lücking, nom. nov. [Bas. Graphina immersa Müll. Arg.; non Graphis immersa Fink], Graphis subchrysocarpa Lücking, nom. nov. [Bas.: Phaeographina ochracea C. W. Dodge; non Graphis ochracea Hepp], and Graphis submarginata Lücking, nom. nov. [Bas. Graphis marginata G. Mey. & Flot.; non Graphis marginataRaddi] are introduced as replacement names. Furthermore, 17 new combinations are proposed: G. bipartita (Müll. Arg.) Lücking, comb. nov., G. chondroplaca (Redinger) Lücking comb. et stat. nov., G. consanguinea (Mü ll. Arg.) Lücking, comb. nov., G. dichotoma (Mü ll. Arg.) Lücking, comb. nov., G. granulosa (Müll. Arg.) Lücking comb. nov., G. insulana (Fée) Lücking & Sipman, comb. nov., G. lutea (Chevall.) Aptroot, comb. nov., G. multisulcata (Müll. Arg.) Lücking & Chaves comb. nov., G. myrtacea (Müll. Arg.) Lücking, comb. nov., G. nuda (H. Magn.) Staiger & Lücking, comb. nov., G. plurispora (Redinger) Lücking & Chaves, comb. nov., G. puiggarii (Müll. Arg.) Lücking, comb. nov., G. rhizocola (Fée) Lücking & Chaves, comb. nov. [syn. G. anguilliformis Taylor; G. serpens Fée], G. subcontorta (Müll. Arg.) Lücking & Chaves, comb. nov., G. subhiascens (Müll. Arg.) Lücking comb. nov., G. xylophaga (R. C. Harris) Lücking, comb. nov., and Hemithecium plicosum (Meissn.) Lücking & Aptroot, comb. nov. [syn. Graphina malmei Redinger]. The new name Pallidogramme Staiger, Kalb & Lücking, nom. nov. is introduced for Leucogramma A. Massal. [nom. illeg.; 5 Hemithecium subgen. Leucogramma Staiger], comprising a group of three species formerly included in Hemithecium: Pallidogramme chapadana (Redinger) Staiger, Kalb & Lücking, comb. nov., P. chlorocarpoides (Nyl.) Staiger, Kalb & Lücking, comb. nov., and P. chrysenteron (Mont.) Staiger, Kalb & Lücking, comb. nov. More than 600 types of Graphidaceae suspected to represent species of Graphis s.str. were examined for this study, and notes on type material are given when appropriate. Also, the names previously reported for Costa Rica by the Swiss lichenologist Müller Argoviensis in 1891 and 1893 were checked when possible, and 175 unpublished collections from Costa Rica housed at the Farlow Herbarium (FH) of Harvard University and collected and identified by Carroll William Dodge and colleagues and students were revised. A key is presented to all species, including an image-based identification guide, and diagnostic characters in the genus Graphis are briefly discussed and illustrated. Diagnoses and remarks are given for all species treated here, as are more detailed descriptions for the taxa new to science. Data from 803 collections were analyzed using the ordination technique of principal component analysis to display habitat and microhabitat preferences for species groups.
    Countries/Continents: Central America/Costa Rica
    Notes: New (all new species from Costa Rica): Graphis altamirensis Sipman & Lücking, Graphis argentata Lücking & Umaña, Graphis bettinae Lücking, Umaña, Chaves & Sipman, Graphis bipartita (Müll. Arg.) Lücking (≡ Graphina bipartita Müll. Arg.), Graphis chondroplaca (Redinger) Lücking (≡ Graphis lineola var. chondroplaca Redinger), Graphis consanguinea (Müll. Arg.) Lücking (≡ Graphina consanguinea Müll. Arg.), Graphis duplicatoinspersa Lücking, Graphis dichotoma (Müll. Arg.) Lücking (≡ Graphina dichotoma Müll. Arg.), Graphis firferi Lücking, Graphis flavoaltamirensis Sipman & Lücking, Graphis flavominiata Moncada & Lücking, Graphis fournierii Lizano & Lücking, Graphis gomezii Lücking, Will-Wolf & Umaña, Graphis granulosa (Müll. Arg.) Lücking (≡ Graphina granulosa Müll. Arg.), Graphis gregmuelleri Sipman & Lücking, Graphis immersoides Lücking nom. nov. pro. Graphina immersa Müll. Arg. non Fink), Graphis hypocrellina Lücking & Chaves, Graphis inspersostictica Sipman & Lücking, Graphis insulana (Müll. Arg.) Lücking (≡ Graphina insulana Müll. Arg.), Graphis litoralis Lücking, Sipman & Chaves, Graphis lutea (Chevall.) Aptroot (≡ Allographa lutea Chevall.), Graphis mirabilis Lücking, Sipman, Umaña & Chaves, Graphis multisulcata (Müll. Arg.) Lücking & Chaves (≡ Graphina multisulcata Müll. Arg.), Graphis myrtacea (Müll. Arg.) Lücking (≡ Graphina myrtacea Müll. Arg.), Graphis nuda (H. Magn.) Staiger & Lücking (≡ Grahina nuda H. Magn.), Graphis nudaeformis Lücking, Graphis oryzaecarpa Lücking, Graphis paradisserpens Sipman & Lücking, Graphis paraserpens Lizano & Lücking, Graphis pittieri Lücking, Umaña, Sipman & Chaves, Graphis plurispora (Redinger) Lücking & Chaves (≡ Graphina pseudosophistica var. plurispora Redinger), Graphis pseudocinerea Lücking & Umaña, Graphis pseudoserpens Chaves & Lücking, Graphis puiggarii (Müll. Arg.) Lücking (≡ Graphina puiggarii Müll. Arg.), Graphis rhizocola (Fée) Lücking (≡ Opegrapha rhizocola Fée), Graphis subchrysocarpa Lücking nom. nov. pro. Phaeographis ochracea C.W. Dodge non Graphis ochracea Hepp, Graphis subcontorta (Müll. Arg.) Lücking & Chaves (≡ Graphina subcontorta Müll. Arg.), Graphis subflexibilis Lücking & Chaves, Graphis subhiascens (Müll. Arg.) Lücking (≡ Graphina subhiascens Müll. Arg.), Graphis submarginata Lücking nom. nov. pro. Graphis marginata G. Mey. & Flot. non G. marginata Raddi), Graphis subruiziana Sipman, Chaves & Lücking, Graphis subturgidula Lücking & Sipman, Graphis tenoriensis Chaves & Lücking, Graphis xylophaga (R.C. Harris) Lücking [comb. superf.], Hemithecium plicosum (Meissn.) Lücking & Aptroot (≡ Opegrapha plicosa Meissn.), Pallidogramme Staiger, Kalb & Lücking nom. nov. pro. Leucogramma A. Massal. non G. Mey. (type P. chrysenteron), P. chapadana (Redinger) Staiger, Kalb & Lücking (≡ Phaeographina chapadana Redinger), P. chlorocarpoides (Nyl.) Staiger, Kalb & Lücking (≡ Graphis chlorocarpoides Nyl.), P. chrysenteron (Mont.) Staiger, Kalb & Lücking (≡ Graphis chrysenteron Mont.). Lectotypified: Allographa lutea Chevall., Graphis caesiocarpa Redinger, Graphis farinulenta Müll. Arg., Graphis intricata f. meizospora Redinger, Graphis lineola var. chondroplaca Redinger, Graphis miniata Redinger, Graphis orientalis Vain., Graphis rimulosa var. tetraspora Redinger, Graphis seminuda Müll. Arg., Graphis seminuda var. sublaevis Müll. Arg., Graphis striatula var. substellaris Redinger, Graphis subangustata Vain, Opegrapha plicosa Meissn.
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    Number of records in database: 41988.
    Current date: 2022.10.07.OK