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  • Ariyawansa, H.A./ Hyde, K.D./ Jayasiri, S.C./ Buyck, B./ Chethana, K.W.T./ Dai, D.Q./ Dai, Y.C./ Daranagama, D.A./ Jayawardena, R.S./ Lücking, R./ Ghobad-Nejhad, M./ Niskanen, T./ Thambugala, K.M./ Voigt, K./ Zhao, R.L./ Li, G.-J./ Doilom, M./ Boonmee, S./ Yang, Z.L./ Cai, Q./ Cui, Y.Y./ Bahkali, A.H./ Chen, J./ Cui, B.K./ Chen, J.J./ Dayarathne, M.C./ Dissanayake, A.J./ Ekanayaka, A.H./ Hashimoto, A./ Hongsanan, S./ Jones, E.B.G./ Larsson, E./ Li, W.J./ Li, Q.-R./ Liu, J.K./ Luo, Z.L./ Maharachchikumbura, S.S.N./ Mapook, A./ McKenzie, E.H.C./ Norphanphoun, C./ Konta, S./ Pang, K.L./ Perera, R.H./ Phookamsak, R./ Phukhamsakda, C./ Pinruan, U./ Randrianjohany, E./ Singtripop, C./ Tanaka, K./ Tian, C.M./ Tibpromma, S./ Abdel-Wahab, M.A./ Wanasinghe, D.N./ Wijayawardene, N.N./ Zhang, J.-F./ Zhang, H./ Abdel-Aziz, F.A./ Wedin, M./ Westberg, M./ Ammirati, J.F./ Bulgakov, T.S./ Lima, D.X./ Callaghan, T.M./ Callac, P./ Chang, C.-H./ Coca, L.F./ Dal-Forno, M./ Dollhofer, V./ Fliegerová, K./ Greiner, K./ Griffith, G.W./ Ho, H.-M./ Hofstetter, V./ Jeewon, R./ Kang, J.C./ Wen, T.-C./ Kirk, P.M./ Kytövuori, I./ Lawrey, J.D./ Xing, J./ Li, H./ Liu, Z.Y./ Liu, X.Z./ Liimatainen, K./ Lumbsch, H.T./ Matsumura, M./ Moncada, B./ Nuankaew, S./ Parnmen, S./ de Azevedo Santiago, A.L.C.M./ Sommai, S./ Song, Y./ de Souza, C.A.F./ de Souza-Motta, C.M./ Su, H.Y./ Suetrong, S./ Wang, Y./ Wei, S.-F./ Wen, T.C./ Yuan, H.S./ Zhou, L.W./ Réblová, M./ Fournier, J./ Camporesi, E./ Luangsa-ard, J.J./ Tasanathai, K./ Khonsanit, A./ Thanakitpipattana, D./ Somrithipol, S./ Diederich, P./ Millanes, A.M./ Common, R.S./ Stadler, M./ Yan, J.Y./ Li, X./ Lee, H.W./ Nguyen, T.T.T./ Lee, H.B./ Battistin, E./ Marsico, O./ Vizzini, A./ Vila, J./ Ercole, E./ Eberhardt, U./ Simonini, G./ Wen, H.-A./ Chen, X.-H. 2015: Fungal diversity notes 111–252—taxonomic and phylogenetic contributions to fungal taxa. - Fungal Diversity 75(1): 27-274. [RLL List # 268 / Rec.# 36903]
    Keywords: Fungi/ Taxonomy/ New genus/ New species/ Phylogeny
    Abstract: This paper is a compilation of notes on 142 fungal taxa, including five new families, 20 new genera, and 100 new species, representing a wide taxonomic and geographic range. The new families, Ascocylindricaceae, Caryosporaceae and Wicklowiaceae (Ascomycota) are introduced based on their distinct lineages and unique morphology. The new Dothideomycete genera Pseudomassariosphaeria (Amniculicolaceae), Heracleicola, Neodidymella and Pseudomicrosphaeriopsis (Didymellaceae), Pseudopithomyces (Didymosphaeriaceae), Brunneoclavispora, Neolophiostoma and Sulcosporium (Halotthiaceae), Lophiohelichrysum (Lophiostomataceae), Galliicola, Populocrescentia and Vagicola (Phaeosphaeriaceae), Ascocylindrica (Ascocylindricaceae), Elongatopedicellata (Roussoellaceae), Pseudoasteromassaria (Latoruaceae) and Pseudomonodictys (Macrodiplodiopsidaceae) are introduced. The newly described species of Dothideomycetes (Ascomycota) are Pseudomassariosphaeria bromicola (Amniculicolaceae), Flammeascoma lignicola (Anteagloniaceae), Ascocylindrica marina (Ascocylindricaceae), Lembosia xyliae (Asterinaceae), Diplodia crataegicola and Diplodia galiicola (Botryosphaeriaceae), Caryospora aquatica (Caryosporaceae), Heracleicola premilcurensis and Neodidymella thailandicum (Didymellaceae), Pseudopithomyces palmicola (Didymosphaeriaceae), Floricola viticola (Floricolaceae), Brunneoclavispora bambusae, Neolophiostoma pigmentatum and Sulcosporium thailandica (Halotthiaceae), Pseudoasteromassaria fagi (Latoruaceae), Keissleriella dactylidicola (Lentitheciaceae), Lophiohelichrysum helichrysi (Lophiostomataceae), Aquasubmersa japonica (Lophiotremataceae), Pseudomonodictys tectonae (Macrodiplodiopsidaceae), Microthyrium buxicola and Tumidispora shoreae (Microthyriaceae), Alloleptosphaeria clematidis, Allophaeosphaeria cytisi, Allophaeosphaeria subcylindrospora, Dematiopleospora luzulae, Entodesmium artemisiae, Galiicola pseudophaeosphaeria, Loratospora luzulae, Nodulosphaeria senecionis, Ophiosphaerella aquaticus, Populocrescentia forlicesenensis and Vagicola vagans (Phaeosphaeriaceae), Elongatopedicellata lignicola, Roussoella magnatum and Roussoella angustior (Roussoellaceae) and Shrungabeeja longiappendiculata (Tetraploasphaeriaceae). The new combinations Pseudomassariosphaeria grandispora, Austropleospora archidendri, Pseudopithomyces chartarum, Pseudopithomyces maydicus, Pseudopithomyces sacchari, Vagicola vagans, Punctulariopsis cremeoalbida and Punctulariopsis efibulata Dothideomycetes. The new genera Dictyosporella (Annulatascaceae), and Tinhaudeus (Halosphaeriaceae) are introduced in Sordariomycetes (Ascomycota) while Dictyosporella aquatica (Annulatascaceae), Chaetosphaeria rivularia (Chaetosphaeriaceae), Beauveria gryllotalpidicola and Beauveria loeiensis (Cordycipitaceae), Seimatosporium sorbi and Seimatosporium pseudorosarum (Discosiaceae), Colletotrichum aciculare, Colletotrichum fusiforme and Colletotrichum hymenocallidicola (Glomerellaceae), Tinhaudeus formosanus (Halosphaeriaceae), Pestalotiopsis subshorea and Pestalotiopsis dracaenea (Pestalotiopsiceae), Phaeoacremonium tectonae (Togniniaceae), Cytospora parasitica and Cytospora tanaitica (Valsaceae), Annulohypoxylon palmicola, Biscogniauxia effusae and Nemania fusoideis (Xylariaceae) are introduced as novel species to order Sordariomycetes. The newly described species of Eurotiomycetes are Mycocalicium hyaloparvicellulum (Mycocaliciaceae). Acarospora septentrionalis and Acarospora castaneocarpa (Acarosporaceae), Chapsa multicarpa and Fissurina carassensis (Graphidaceae), Sticta fuscotomentosa and Sticta subfilicinella (Lobariaceae) are newly introduced in class Lecanoromycetes. In class Pezizomycetes, Helvella pseudolacunosa and Helvella rugosa (Helvellaceae) are introduced as new species. The new families, Dendrominiaceae and Neoantrodiellaceae (Basidiomycota) are introduced together with a new genus Neoantrodiella (Neoantrodiellaceae), here based on both morphology coupled with molecular data. In the class Agaricomycetes, Agaricus pseudolangei, Agaricus haematinus, Agaricus atrodiscus and Agaricus exilissimus (Agaricaceae), Amanita melleialba, Amanita pseudosychnopyramis and Amanita subparvipantherina (Amanitaceae), Entoloma calabrum, Cora barbulata, Dictyonema gomezianum and Inocybe granulosa (Inocybaceae), Xerocomellus sarnarii (Boletaceae), Cantharellus eucalyptorum, Cantharellus nigrescens, Cantharellus tricolor and Cantharellus variabilicolor (Cantharellaceae), Cortinarius alboamarescens, Cortinarius brunneoalbus, Cortinarius ochroamarus, Cortinarius putorius and Cortinarius seidlii (Cortinariaceae), Hymenochaete micropora and Hymenochaete subporioides (Hymenochaetaceae), Xylodon ramicida (Schizoporaceae), Colospora andalasii (Polyporaceae), Russula guangxiensis and Russula hakkae (Russulaceae), Tremella dirinariae, Tremella graphidis and Tremella pyrenulae (Tremellaceae) are introduced. Four new combinations Neoantrodiella gypsea, Neoantrodiella thujae (Neoantrodiellaceae), Punctulariopsis cremeoalbida, Punctulariopsis efibulata (Punctulariaceae) are also introduced here for the division Basidiomycota. Furthermore Absidia caatinguensis, Absidia koreana and Gongronella koreana (Cunninghamellaceae), Mortierella pisiformis and Mortierella formosana (Mortierellaceae) are newly introduced in the Zygomycota, while Neocallimastix cameroonii and Piromyces irregularis (Neocallimastigaceae) are introduced in the Neocallimastigomycota. Reference specimens or changes in classification and notes are provided for Alternaria ethzedia, Cucurbitaria ephedricola, Austropleospora, Austropleospora archidendri, Byssosphaeria rhodomphala, Lophiostoma caulium, Pseudopithomyces maydicus, Massariosphaeria, Neomassariosphaeria and Pestalotiopsis montellica.
    – doi:10.1007/s13225-015-0346-5

    Notes: New lichens and lichenicolous fungi: Acarospora castaneocarpa M. Westb. & Wedin (from Finland), A. septentrionalis M.Westb. & Wedin (from Iceland, Norway, Sweden; ≡ A. badiofusca var. glaucocarpoides H.Magn.), Chapsa multicarpa Lücking, Parnmen & Lumbsch (from Thailand), Cora barbulata Lücking, Dal-Forno & Lawrey (from Costa Rica), Dictyonema gomezianum Lücking, Dal-Forno & Lawrey (from Costa Rica), Fissurina carassensis Lücking, Parnmen & Lumbsch (from Brazil), Mycocalicium hyaloparvicellulum Daranagama & K.D. Hyde (from Italy), Sticta fuscotomentosa Moncada, Coca & Lücking (from Colombia), Sticta subfilicinella Moncada, Coca & Lücking (from Colombia), Tremella dirinariae Diederich, Millanes & Wedin (on Dirinaria aegialita from U.S.A.), Tremella graphidis Diederich, Millanes, Wedin & Common (on Graphis spp. from U.S.A.), Tremella pyrenulae Diederich, Millanes, Wedin & Common (on Pyrenula ochraceoflavens from U.S.A.).
    URL: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13225-015-0346-5
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  • Dal Forno, M./ Bungartz, F./ Yánez-Ayabaca, A./ Lücking, R./ Lawrey, J.D. 2017: High levels of endemism among Galapagos basidiolichens. - Fungal Diversity 85(1): 45-73. [RLL List # 250 / Rec.# 39487]
    Abstract: This study is a re-assessment of basidiolichen diversity in the Galapagos Islands. We present a molecular phylogenetic analysis, based on 92 specimens from Galapagos, using two nuclear ribosomal DNA markers (ITS and nuLSU). We also re-examined the morphology and anatomy of all sequenced material. The molecular results confirm our previous assessment that all Galapagos basidiolichens belong to the Dictyonema clade, which in Galapagos is represented by four genera: Acantholichen, Cora, Cyphellostereum, and Dictyonema. Most species previously reported from Galapagos in these genera were at the time believed to represent widely distributed taxa. This conclusion, however, has changed with the inclusion of molecular data. Although almost the same number of species is distinguished, the phylogenetic data now suggest that all are restricted to the Galapagos Islands. Among them, six species are proposed here as new to science, namely Cora galapagoensis, Cyphellostereum unoquinoum, Dictyonema barbatum, D. darwinianum, D. ramificans, and D. subobscuratum; and four species have already been described previously, namely Acantholichen galapagoensis, Cora santacruzensis, Dictyonema pectinatum, and D. galapagoense, here recombined as Cyphellostereum galapagoense. Our analysis is set on a very broad phylogenetic framework, which includes a large number of specimens (N = 826) mainly from Central and South America, and therefore strongly suggests an unusually high level of endemism previously not recognized. This analysis also shows that the closest relatives of half of the basidiolichens now found in Galapagos are from mainland Ecuador, implying that they reached the islands through the shortest route, with all species arriving on the islands through independent colonization events.
    – doi:10.1007/s13225-017-0380-6

    Countries/Continents: Ecuador/South America
    Notes: New (all from Ecuador): Cora galapagoensis Dal-Forno, Bungartz & Lücking, Cyphellostereum galapagoense (Yánez, Dal Forno & Bungartz) Dal-Forno, Bungartz & Lücking (≡ Dictyonema galapagoense Yánez, Dal Forno & Bungartz), Cy. unoquinoum Dal-Forno, Bungartz & Lücking, Dictyonema barbatum Dal-Forno, Bungartz & Lücking, D. darwinianum Dal-Forno, Bungartz & Lücking, D. ramificans Dal-Forno, Yánez-Ayabaca & Lücking, D. subobscuratum Dal-Forno, Bungartz & Lücking.
    URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13225-017-0380-6
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  • Dal Forno, M./ Lawrey, J.D./ Sikaroodi, M./ Gillevet, P.M./ Schuettpelz, E./ Lücking, R. 2021[2020]: Extensive photobiont sharing in a rapidly radiating cyanolichen clade. - Molecular Ecology 30(8): 1755-1776. [RLL List # 264 / Rec.# 42662]
    Abstract: Recent studies have uncovered remarkable diversity in Dictyonema s.lat. basidiolichens, here recognized as subtribe Dictyonemateae. This group includes five genera and 148 species, but hundreds more await description. The photobionts of these lichens belong to Rhizonema, a recently resurrected cyanobacterial genus known by a single species. To further investigate photobiont diversity within Dictyonemateae, we generated 765 new cyanobacterial sequences from 635 specimens collected from 18 countries. The ITS barcoding locus supported the recognition of 200 mycobiont (fungal) species among these samples, but the photobiont diversity was comparatively low. Our analyses revealed three main divisions of Rhizonema, with two repeatedly recovered as monophyletic (proposed as new species), and the third mostly paraphyletic. The paraphyletic lineage corresponds to R. interruptum and partnered with mycobionts from all five genera in Dictyonemateae. There was no evidence of photobiont‐mycobiont co‐speciation, but one of the monophyletic lineages of Rhizonema appears to partner predominantly with one of the two major clades of Cora (mycobiont) with samples collected largely from the northern Andes. Molecular clock estimations indicate the Rhizonema species are much older than the fungal species in the Dictyonemateae, suggesting that these basidiolichens obtained their photobionts from older ascolichen lineages and the photobiont variation in extant lineages of Dictyonemateae is the result of multiple photobiont switches. These results support the hypothesis of lichens representing "fungal farmers," in which diverse mycobiont lineages associate with a substantially lower diversity of photobionts by sharing those photobionts best suited for the lichen symbiosis among multiple and often unrelated mycobiont lineages.
    – doi:10.1111/mec.15700

    URL: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/mec.15700
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  • Dal Forno, M./ Sikaroodi, M./ Lücking, R./ Lawrey, J.D./ Gillevet, P./ Grube, M. 2017: [Abstract:] First insights into the microbiota associated with different thallus morphologies in the Dictyonema clade. - Fritschiana 85: 16-17. [RLL List # 251 / Rec.# 39857]
    Abstract: Dictyonema sensu lato is the most speciose lichen clade in Basidiomycota, with 136 currently described species (LÜCKING et al. 2017, DAL FORNO et al. 2017). The known photobiont of all these lichen species belong to Rhizonema, a genus of cyanobacteria so far only found in symbiosis with lichens and liverworts (LÜCKING et al. 2009, Cornejo & SCHEIDEGGER 2015). While most of the diversity of Dictyonema s.l. is found in tropical montane regions, several species may also grow in subtropical and temperate regions. The group also shows a wide range of morphologies: the basal clade Cyphellostereum and the paraphyletic genus Dictyonema are filamentous, while the other three genera, Acantholichen, Corella and Cora, are squamulose to mostly foliose (DAL FORNO et al. 2013). We aimed to investigate whether the inhabiting microbial communities of these lichens were related in any way to these different morphologies, given that they all present different substrates to which the bacteria could interact. We sequenced the 16S rDNA region (covering the variable regions one and two) with multi-tag pyrosequencing (MTPS) for 695 samples from 18 countries representing all major clades within Dictyonema s.l. We found that reads matching the photobiont Rhizonemawere predominant in all samples. However, after excluding these cyanobacterial reads, the most abundant bacteria belonged to the Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi phyla. Our preliminary results show that there is a non-random composition pattern among the morphological categories with bacterial communities from filamentous species clustering separately from those of foliose species.
    URL: https://static.uni-graz.at/fileadmin/nawi-institute/Botanik/Fritschiana/fritschiana-85/fritschiana-85.pdf
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  • Dal-Forno, M./ Lawrey, J.D./ Lücking, R. 2013: [Abstract:] Como identificar Dictyonema? Uma tentativa de avaliar importantes características no grupo. - Livro de Resumos do Sexto Encontro do Grupo Brasileiro de Liquenólogos 1: 23-24. [RLL List # 243 / Rec.# 37523]
    Abstract: A taxonomia de basidiomicetos liquenizados continua a ser um assunto pouco abordado e resolvido se comparado aos ascomicetos liquenizados. Eles representam um grupo pequeno dentro de Basidiomycota; com cerca de cinqüenta espécies aceitas sendo distribuídas em dez gêneros. Dictyonema sensu lato representa o maior grupo de basidioliquens, com possivelmente mais de trinta espécies. Este se encontra inserido em Hygrophoraceae, uma família de fungos que recentemente demostrou-se possuir alta concentração de basidioliquens. O grupo apresenta morfologia variada, com talos filamentosos, crustosos e foliosos, com a cianobactéria Rhizonema como fotobionte. O conceito mais utilizado do grupo é baseado na monografia de Parmastro (1978), que adotou um conceito amplo de espécie, onde diferenças morfológias são consideradas variações infraespecíficas e a anatomia do talo possui mais importância, deste modo sugerindo apenas cinco espécies válidas. Nossas pesquisas baseadas em dados moleculares e extensas observações anatômicas e morfológicas, com espécimens pertencendo a mais de 17 países, demonstram que o grupo é muito diverso e que tais diferenças morfológicas são de fato representantes de espécies distintas. Até o presente momento, as seguintes características morfológicas foram analisadas e consideradas importantes: forma de crescimento do talo, cor, brilho, espessura; presença de protalo; textura das superfícies superiores e inferiores; estruturas adicionais, como pelos, zonação, e veias; e forma dos basidiomas. Já as características anatômicas de importância taxonômica são: formato e tamanho das cianobactérias e hifas, presença de papilas, entre outras características únicas de alguns táxons. Nas análises moleculares, o grupo Dictyonema s.l. apresentou-se monofilético, com 6 divisões, possivelmente indicando uma nova delimitação genérica. Estes são: Acantholichen, Cora (dois clados), Corella, Cyphellostereum e Dictyonema s.s. Acantholichen possui células corticais infladas com espinhos e talo esquamuloso. Assim como em Cora e Corella, os filamentos das cianobactérias apresentam-se agrupadas em células cocóides e talos distintamente dividido em camadas, no entanto Cora e Corella possuem forma foliosa. Estes dois gêneros podem ser distinguidos pelo córtex paraplectênquimatoso presente em Corella. Em contraste, Cyphellostereum e Dictyonema possuem talo sem camadas distintas e as cianobactérias são filamentosas, resultando em um talo crustoso ou filamentoso, dependendo do espaço entre células. Em Dictyonema s.s., a cianobactéria é circundada por hifas com formato de peças de quebra-cabeça, e são mais largas se comparadas as células também filamentosas de Cyphellostereum, que por sua vez também diferenciam-se por possuir hifas irregularmente conectadas e basidiomas cifelóides. À medida que mais exemplares são adicionados, novas características podem surgir e nos ajudar no caminho ao esclarecimento da evolução e diversidade deste grupo de liquens tropicais.
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  • Dal-Forno, M./ Lücking, R./ Lawrey, J.D. 2014: [Abstract] Diversidade nos gêneros Cora e Corella (Agaricales: Hygrophoraceae). - In: : Livro de Resumos do Sétimo Encontro do Grupo Brasileiro de Liquenólogos. 1. Grupo Brasileiro de Liquenólogos, pp. 24. [RLL List # 248 / Rec.# 39005]
    Abstract: O grupo Dictyonema s.l. é formado por uma combinação única de duas minorias nos componentes da simbiose liquênica: seu micobionte é um Basidiomycota (menos de 1% dos liquens são basidioliquens), e seu fotobionte uma cianobactéria (em torno de 12% dos liquens são cianoliquens). Os talos resultantes dessa associação são bastante diversos quanto a sua morfologia e anatomia, com cinco gêneros de basidiomicetos liquenizados no clado Dictyonema: Acantholichen (esquamuloso), Cora e Corella (foliosos), Cyphellostereum e Dictyonema s.s. (filamentosos-crustosos). O presente estudo se concentrou nos gêneros com talos foliosos, que embora possuam morfologia muito similar, ambos geralmente formados por lobos semicirculares, são diferenciados pelo córtex superior paraplectenquimático presente somente em Corella. Historicamente, havia nove nomes disponíveis para estes dois gêneros, no entanto, todas estas espécies foram sinonimizadas em um nome, Dictyonema pavonia (= D. glabratum). Liquenólogos em excursões de coleta, no entanto, perceberam que tal sinonímia não considerava diferenças em cores, arranjos e texturas observadas em material fresco e desafiaram tal conceito. Nossa pesquisa combinou observações morfológicas em campo e em laboratório com dados moleculares, e demonstrou que tal sinonímia não é apropriada e esconde grande diversidade de formas e padrões de endemismos de pelo menos 126 espécies. Notavelmente, a maioria não é de espécies crípticas reconhecíveis apenas com dados moleculares, mas trata-se de táxons distintos suportados por características fenotípicas, preferência de substrato e habitat, assim como diferente distribuição geográfica. Um modelo que estima a potencial riqueza das espécies nesses gêneros sugere um número ainda maior, com mais de 400 espécies distribuídas em toda região neotropical. Além disso, dados preliminares sobre o fotobionte, as cianobactérias exclusivamente liquenizadas do gênero Rhizonema também relatam um grande número de haplótipos. Estes resultados desafiam atuais conceitos de espécie em basidioliquens e demonstram a necessidade de uma abordagem diferenciada na coleta de tais espécimes, que perdem muitas características relevantes a taxonomia quando removidos da natureza. Além disso, remete a problemas de como documentar com precisão a diversidade, dada a importância ecológica desses liquens em ecossistemas ameaçados, como a Mata Atlântica.
    Notes: In Portuguese.
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  • Dal-Forno, M./ Lücking, R./ Bungartz, F./ Yánez-Ayabaca, A./ Marcelli, M.P./ Spielmann, A.A./ Coca, L.F./ Chaves, J.L./ Aptroot, A./ Sipman, H.J.M./ Sikaroodi, M./ Gillevet, P./ Lawrey, J.D. 2016: From one to six: unrecognized species diversity in the genus Acantholichen (lichenized Basidiomycota: Hygrophoraceae) . - Mycologia 108(1): 38-55. [RLL List # 243 / Rec.# 37684]
    Keywords: Basidiolichens/ lichenized fungi/ montane forest/ phylogeny/ taxonomy/ tropical diversity
    Abstract: We present a taxonomic revision of the lichenized basidiomycete genus Acantholichen, species of which produce a characteristic blue-gray, microsquamulose thallus with spiny apical hyphal cells known as acanthohyphidia. Since its discovery, the genus was thought to be monospecific, only including the generic type, A. pannarioides. However, a detailed morphological and anatomical study of recently collected specimens from the Galápagos, Costa Rica, Brazil and Colombia, combined with a molecular phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) region and 28S of the nuc rDNA and RPB2 sequences, revealed a much more diverse and widespread species assemblage. Based on the results of these analyses, we describe five new species in the genus: A. albomarginatus, A. campestris, A. galapagoensis, A. sorediatus and A. variabilis. We also provide an identification key to all species, anatomical and morphological descriptions, photographs and a table comparing main characters of each species.
    – doi:10.3852/15-060

    Notes: New: Acantholichen albomarginatus Dal-Forno, Marcelli & Lücking (from Brazil), A. campestris Dal-Forno, Spielmann & Lücking (from Brazil), A. galapagoensis Dal-Forno, Bungartz & Lücking (from Ecuador), A. sorediatus Dal-Forno, Sipman & Lücking (from Costa Rica), A. variabilis Dal-Forno, Coca & Lücking (from Colombia).
    URL: http://www.mycologia.org/content/108/1/38.abstract
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  • Dal-Forno, M./ Lücking, R./ Sikaroodi, M./ Lawrey, J.D. 2013: [Abstract:] Filogenia de Dictyonema s.l. – novos conceitos genéricos no grupo. - Livro de Resumos do Sexto Encontro do Grupo Brasileiro de Liquenólogos 1: 64. [RLL List # 243 / Rec.# 37541]
    Abstract: Dictyonema sensu lato é um grupo de basidioliquens que ocorre em regiões tropicais a subtropicais e que apresenta talo crustoso, filamentoso ou folioso. Como fotobionte possui cianobactérias do gênero Rhizonema e seus basidiocarpos são corticióides. A circunscrição mais utilizada do grupo é baseada em Parmasto (1978), que utiliza conceitos amplos para delimitação das espécies, enfatizando anatomia do talo e aceitando diferenças morfógicas como variações fenotípicas. Devido a incertezas dos conceitos utilizados na circuscrição do grupo, nosso laboratório começou a utilizar dados moleculares para basear novas hipóteses para a delimitação genérica. Inicialmente, o DNA foi extraído com o kit FastDNA e então amplificado nos genes ITS, LSU e RPB2 através de PCR. A combinação de primers utilizada no PCR foi: ITS4 e ITS5; LR0R e LR7, e RPB25F e RPB27R2 respectivamente. O produto foi purificado com o kit AMPure e em seguida para a reação de sequenciamento utilizou-se o reagente BigDye Terminator. O produto da reação foi repurificado com Sephadex. Após a adição de HiDi, o produto foi corrido na máquina ABI 3130. As sequencias de DNA geradas foram agregadas com Sequencher e então utilizadas em análises filogenéticas nos programas MrBayes e RaxML. Como resultado, foram observados 6 grupos: Acantholichen, 2 divisões de Cora, Corella, Cyphellostereum e Dictynema s.s. O grupo inclui uma variedade notável de morfologias e simbioses. Cyphellostereum é basal e, provavelmente, representa um grupo de transição. As espécies de Cora parecem ser as mais difíceis de resolver, muitas vezes apresentando morfologias indistinguíveis e com os dados presentes é considerado parafilético. Corella forma um clado, e, portanto, deve ser ressuscitado. Dictyonema s.s. também não forma um grupo monofilético, mas uma gradação parafilética.
    Notes: Abstract, in Portuguese.
    URL:
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  • Dal-Forno, M./ Moncada, B./ Chaves, J.L./ Lawrey, J.D./ Lücking, R. 2013: [Abstract:] Tour de liquens em Las Cruces Biological Station, Costa Rica – um modelo de como introduzir os liquens em atividades educacionais. - Livro de Resumos do Sexto Encontro do Grupo Brasileiro de Liquenólogos 1: 52. [RLL List # 243 / Rec.# 37533]
    Abstract: A Costa Rica possui uma vasta diversidade de liquens, sendo um dos países mais bem conhecidos sob o ponto de vista liquenológico. Durante o curso “Tropical Lichens and Forest Health” ministrado pelo Dr. Robert Lücking através da Organization for Tropical Lichens (OTS), dois tours de liquens, um diurno e um noturno, foram desenvolvidos objetivando a inclusão da comunidade local no conhecimento liquênico. O local, a Estação Biológica Las Cruces, recebe muitos estudantes, pesquisadores e visitantes é coberta por floresta úmida de encosta. Na primeira etapa, o conteúdo básico foi selecionado para proporcionar aos atendentes o contexto dessa simbiose. No tour diurno os tópicos foram: o que são os liquens, como reconhecê-los, onde se desenvolvem, como se reproduzem e nutrição. Já no tour noturno, os tópicos foram o que são liquens, como distingui-los, liquens à noite, e fluorescência em liquens. Na segunda etapa, os caminhos a serem percorridos e os pontos de parada nos tours foram desenhados, afim de se escolher locais onde os liquens presentes poderiam representar todos os assuntos a serem discutidos, portanto os tours diurnos e noturnos possuem rotas diferentes. Um banco de registros fotográficos já havia sido feito para a estação anteriormente. No entanto, novas fotografias dos pontos e liquens específicos de cada local foram adicionados a coleção. Os resultados constituem de quatro folders: tours diurno e noturno, em inglês e espanhol. Durante o desenvolvimento dos tours, testes foram realizados e o noturno teve melhor aceitação, pois usando medidas de segurança adequadas, o tour noturno olha primeiramente para árvores cobertas de liquens inférteis e em maioria brancos, sendo de dificíl identificação e pouco atrativos, no entanto, quando a luz UV portátil é ligada, muitas cores surgem impressionando todas as pessoas presentes. O projeto ainda se encontra em fase inicial, com a confecção do material em larga escala e introdução dos caminhos percorridos na estação biológica.
    Notes: Abstract, in Portuguese.
    URL:
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  • Dal-Forno, M./ J. D. Lawrey/ M. Sikaroodi/ S. Bhattarai/ P. M. Gillevet/ M. Sulzbacher/ R. Lücking 2013: Starting from scratch: Evolution of the lichen thallus in the basidiolichen Dictyonema (Agaricales: Hygrophoraceae). - Fungal Biology 117(9): 584-598. [RLL List # 232 / Rec.# 34966]
    Keywords: Basidiocarp/ Basidiolichens/ Cyanolichens/ Mushrooms
    Abstract: Phylogenetic studies indicate that the basidiolichen genus Dictyonema s.lat., often thought to represent only a single genus with few species, includes several well-supported genus-level clades, all of which form associations with a unique lineage of obligately lichenized cyanobacteria (Rhizonema). In an attempt to elucidate the evolution and genus- and species-level diversification in Dictyonema s.lat., we generated 68 new sequences of the nuclear large subunit rDNA (nuLSU), the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), and the RNA polymerase II subunit (RPB2), for 29 species-level lineages representing all major clades of Dictyonema s.lat. and most of the species currently known. The multilocus phylogeny obtained via maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches indicates the presence of five genus-level groups: a basal clade, Cyphellostereum, that is sister to the rest of the species, a paraphyletic grade representing Dictyonema s.str., and three clades representing the genera Acantholichen, Cora, and Corella. To determine the evolutionary transformations of the lichenized thallus in the group, ancestral character state reconstruction was done using six characters (lichenisation, thallus type, cortex type, hyphal sheath and haustorial type, photobiont morphology, and basidiocarp type). Our analysis indicates a progressive development of the lichenized thallus from loosely organized filamentous crusts with separate, cyphelloid basidiocarps in Cyphellostereum, to filamentous crusts with derived hyphal sheath and cyphelloid-stereoid basidiocarps partially incorporated into the lichen thallus in Dictyonema, to squamulose-foliose thalli with corticioid basidiocarps entirely supported by the lichen thallus in Cora. These results indicate a remarkable evolutionary integration of lichenized and reproductive tissues in Dictyonema s.lat., supporting the hypothesis that, at least in this case, lichenized thalli may have evolved from reproductive structures in their nonlichenized ancestors. © 2013 The British Mycological Society.
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.funbio.2013.05.006
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  • DePriest, PT/ Sikaroodi, M/ Lawrey, JD/ Diederich, P 2005: Marchandiomyces lignicola sp. nov. shows recent and repeated transition between a lignicolous and a lichenicolous habit. - Mycological Research 109(1): 57-70. [RLL List # 199 / Rec.# 27080]
    Keywords: LICHENICOLOUS/ LIGNICOLOUS/ MARCHANDIOMYCES/ SAPROPHYTES
    Abstract: 7 fig. 3 tab. [New: Marchandiomyces lignicola Lawrey & Diederich sp. nov. (Virginia, USA).]
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  • Diederich, P. / J. D. Lawrey/ M. Sikaroodi/ P. M. Gillevet 2011: A new lichenicolous teleomorph is related to plant pathogens in Laetisaria and Limonomyces (Basidiomycota, Corticiales). - Mycologia 103(3): 525-533. [RLL List # 224 / Rec.# 33071]
    Abstract: Molecular and morphological data were used to assess the taxonomic placement of an undescribed lichenicolous basidiomycete teleomorph collected in Luxembourg, Belgium and Germany. The new species is ecologically and morphologically similar to Marchandiobasidium aurantiacum, teleomorph of the common bulbilliferous lichen pathogen Marchandiomyces aurantiacus. However phylogenetic analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial rDNA sequences indicated a close relationship of the new species—not to M. aurantiacum but to turf grass pathogens in genera Laetisaria and Limonomyces, including the generic type of Laetisaria. We are including the new species in Laetisaria based on strong statistical support for the clade containing these teleomorphs and several Marchandiomyces anamorphs. The morphological and ecological diversity of this clade indicates a potentially significant evolutionary role played by lichen-associated species in the Corticiales.
    – doi:10.3852/10-255

    Notes: New species: Laetisaria lichenicola Diederich, Lawrey & Van den Broeck (on Physcia tenella and P. adscendens from Belgium, Germany, and Luxembourg)
    URL: http://www.mycologia.org/cgi/content/abstract/103/3/525/
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  • Diederich, P./ Lawrey, J.D./ Ertz, D. 2018: The 2018 classification and checklist of lichenicolous fungi, with 2000 non-lichenized, obligately lichenicolous taxa. - The Bryologist 121(3): 340-425. [RLL List # 256 / Rec.# 40753]
    Abstract: Lichenicolous fungi represent a highly specialized and successful group of organisms that live exclusively on lichens, most commonly as host-specific parasites, but also as broad-spectrum pathogens, saprotrophs or commensals. We present here the most recent update to the classification of lichenicolous fungi in the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota to genus level, arranged phylogenetically according to published classifications. For each genus, all known lichenicolous taxa (obligately lichenicolous taxa, lichenicolous lichens, and facultatively lichenicolous taxa) are listed, along with information about types, synonyms, pertinent literature and whether or not molecular data are available for any of the listed species. The number of accepted lichenicolous fungi is now 2319, with 2000 obligately lichenicolous species, subspecies or varieties, 257 lichenicolous lichens and 62 facultatively lichenicolous taxa. These species are found in 10 different classes of Fungi (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota), 55 orders, 115 families and 397 genera. The 2319 total taxa is an increase from the 1559 total species reported in the last published catalogue in 2003, and a larger number than the approximately 1800 reported in the most recent online checklist (www.lichenicolous.net) posted in January 2018. Of the total number of taxa, 2219 (96%) are ascomycetes and 100 (4%) are basidiomycetes. Of the 397 genera containing lichenicolous species, c. 50% (198) are entirely lichenicolous. In addition, six families (Abrothallaceae, Adelococcaceae, Cyphobasidiaceae, Obryzaceae, Polycoccaceae, Sarcopyreniaceae) and two orders (Abrothallales, Cyphobasidiales) are entirely lichenicolous. Sequence information is available for lichenicolous species in 128 (32%) of the 397 genera containing lichenicolous species, and in 56 (28%) of the 198 entirely lichenicolous genera. Many species are known from only one host lichen, but it is likely that broader host ecologies will be discovered as new sequence information is obtained from ongoing microbiome studies. Phaeopyxis Rambold & Triebel is considered as a new synonym of Bachmanniomyces D.Hawksw., resulting in five new combinations B. australis (Rambold & Triebel) Diederich & Pino-Bodas (≡ P. australis), B. carniolicus (Arnold) Diederich & Pino-Bodas (≡ Biatora carniolica), B. muscigenae (Alstrup & E.S.Hansen) Diederich & Pino-Bodas (≡ P. muscigenae), B. punctum (A.Massal.) Diederich & Pino-Bodas (≡ Nesolechia punctum) and B. varius (Coppins, Rambold & Triebel) Diederich & Pino-Bodas (≡ P. varia). As a consequence of a phylogenetic analysis including new sequences, Dactylospora Körb. is regarded as a new synonym of Sclerococcum Fr. : Fr., resulting in one new name (S. acarosporicola Ertz & Diederich) and 46 new combinations. Sclerococcaceae Réblová, Unter. & W.Gams is considered as a new synonym of Dactylosporaceae Bellem. & Hafellner. The new Sclerococcum ophthalmizae Coppins is described. Sclerophyton occidentale Herre is lectotypified on the lichenicolous fungus present in the type specimen and becomes a younger synonym of Sclerococcum parasiticum. A replacement name is Arthonia polydactylonis Diederich & Ertz (≡ A. ceracea). Further new combinations are Abrothallus lobariae (Diederich & Etayo) Diederich & Ertz (≡ Phoma lobariae), A. psoromatis (Zhurb. & U. Braun) Diederich & Zhurb. (≡ P. psoromatis), Asteroglobulus pyramidalis (Etayo) Diederich (≡ Cornutispora pyramidalis), Didymocyrtis grumantiana (Zhurb. & Diederich) Zhurb. & Diederich (≡ Phoma grumantiana), Epithamnolia atrolazulina (Etayo) Diederich (≡ Hainesia atrolazulina), Gyalolechia epiplacynthium (Etayo) Diederich (≡ Fulgensia epiplacynthium), Nesolechia doerfeltii (Alstrup & P.Scholz) Diederich (≡ Phacopsis doerfeltii), N. falcispora (Triebel & Rambold) Diederich (≡ P. falcispora), N. oxyspora var. fusca (Triebel & Rambold) Diederich (≡ P. oxyspora var. fusca), Preussia peltigerae (Brackel) Diederich (≡ Sporormiella peltigerae), Scutula curvispora (D.Hawksw. & Miądl.) Diederich (≡ Libertiella curvispora), S. didymospora (D.Hawksw. & Miądl.) Diederich (≡ L. didymospora), Stigmidium haesitans (Nyl.) Diederich (≡ Verrucaria haesitans), and S. parvum (Henssen) Diederich (≡ Pharcidia parvum).
    – doi:10.1639/0007-2745-121.3.340

    Notes: New: Abrothallus lobariae (Diederich & Etayo) Diederich & Ertz (≡ Phoma lobariae Diederich & Etayo), Abrothallus psoromatis (Zhurb. & U.Braun) Diederich & Zhurb. (≡ Phoma psoromatis Zhurb. & U.Braun), Arthonia polydactylonis Diederich & Ertz nom. nov. pro Arthonia ceracea Etayo & Breuss non Fée, Asteroglobulus pyramidalis (Etayo) Diederich (≡ Cornutispora pyramidalis Etayo), Bachmanniomyces australis (Rambold & Triebel) Diederich & Pino-Bodas (≡ Phaeopyxis australis Rambold & Triebel), Bachmanniomyces carniolicus (Arnold) Diederich & Pino-Bodas (≡ Biatora carniolica Arnold), Bachmanniomyces muscigenae (Alstrup & E.S.Hansen) Diederich & Pino-Bodas (≡ Phaeopyxis muscigenae Alstrup & E.S.Hansen), Bachmanniomyces punctum (A.Massal.) Diederich & Pino-Bodas (≡ Nesolechia punctum A.Massal.), Bachmanniomyces varius (Coppins, Rambold & Triebel) Diederich & Pino-Bodas (≡ Phaeopyxis varia Coppins, Rambold & Triebel), Didymocyrtis grumantiana (Zhurb. & Diederich) Zhurb. & Diederich (≡ Phoma grumantiana Zhurb. & Diederich), Epithamnolia atrolazulina (Etayo) Diederich (≡ Hainesia atrolazulina Etayo), Gyalolechia epiplacynthium (Etayo) Diederich (≡ Fulgensia epiplacynthium Etayo), Nesolechia doerfeltii (Alstrup & P.Scholz) Diederich (≡ Phacopsis doerfeltii Alstrup & P.Scholz), Nesolechia falcispora (Triebel & Rambold) Diederich (≡ Phacopsis falcispora Triebel & Rambold), Nesolechia oxyspora var. fusca (Triebel & Rambold) Diederich (≡ Phacopsis oxyspora var. fusca Triebel & Rambold), Preussia peltigerae (Brackel) Diederich (≡ Sporormiella peltigerae Brackel), Sclerococcum acarosporicola Ertz & Diederich nom. nov. pro Karschia acarosporae H.Magn. non Sclerococcum acarosporae S.Y.Kondr., Sclerococcum aeruginosum (Holien & Ihlen) Ertz & Diederich (≡ Dactylospora aeruginosa Holien & Ihlen), Sclerococcum ahtii (Zhurb. & Pino-Bodas) Ertz & Diederich (≡ Dactylospora ahtii Zhurb. & Pino-Bodas), Sclerococcum allantoideum (Alstrup & D.Hawksw.) Ertz & Diederich (≡ Dactylospora allantoidea Alstrup & D.Hawksw.), Sclerococcum amygdalariae (Triebel) Ertz & Diederich (≡ Dactylospora amygdalariae Triebel), Sclerococcum anziae (Zhurb., Ezhkin, Skirina & Y.Ohmura) Ertz & Diederich (≡ Dactylospora anziae Zhurb., Ezhkin, Skirina & Y.Ohmura), Sclerococcum aspiciliicola (Alstrup & D.Hawksw.) Ertz & Diederich (≡ Dactylospora aspiciliicola Alstrup & D.Hawksw.), Sclerococcum athallinum (Müll.Arg.) Ertz & Diederich (≡ Buellia athallina Müll.Arg.), Sclerococcum attendendum (Nyl.) Ertz & Diederich (≡ Lecidea attendenda Nyl.), Sclerococcum australe (Triebel & Hertel) Ertz & Diederich (≡ Dactylospora australis Triebel & Hertel), Sclerococcum boreale (Holien & Ihlen) Ertz & Diederich (≡ Dactylospora borealis Holien & Ihlen), Sclerococcum cladoniicola (Alstrup & Olech) Ertz & Diederich (≡ Dactylospora cladoniicola Alstrup & Olech), Sclerococcum crassum (Sarrión & Hafellner) Ertz & Diederich (≡ Dactylospora crassa Sarrión & Hafellner), Sclerococcum davidii (Hafellner & H.Mayrhofer) Ertz & Diederich (≡ Dactylospora davidii Hafellner & H.Mayrhofer), Sclerococcum deminutum (Th.Fr.) Ertz & Diederich (≡ Lecidea parasitica var. deminuta Th.Fr.), Sclerococcum dobrowolskii (Olech & Alstrup) Ertz & Diederich (≡ Dactylospora dobrowolskii Olech & Alstrup), Sclerococcum frigidum (Hafellner) Ertz & Diederich (≡ Dactylospora frigida Hafellner), Sclerococcum glaucomarioides (Tuck.) Ertz & Diederich (≡ Buellia glaucomarioides Tuck.), Sclerococcum hafellnerianum (Sérus.) Ertz & Diederich (≡ Dactylospora hafellneriana Sérus.), Sclerococcum haliotrephum (Kohlm. & E.Hohlm.) Ertz & Diederich (≡ Buellia haliotrepha Kohlm. & E.Kohlm.), Sclerococcum heterodermiae (Etayo) Ertz & Diederich (≡ Dactylospora heterodermiae Etayo), Sclerococcum homoclinellum (Nyl.) Ertz & Diederich (≡ Lecidea homoclinella Nyl.), Sclerococcum inconspicuum (Etayo) Ertz & Diederich (≡ Dactylospora inconspicua Etayo), Sclerococcum inquilinum (Tuck.) Ertz & Diederich (≡ Buellia inquilina Tuck.), Sclerococcum lobariellum (Nyl.) Ertz & Diederich (≡ Lecidea lobariella Nyl.), Sclerococcum mangrovei (E.B.G.Jones, Alias, Abdel-Wahab & S.Y.Hsieh) Ertz & Diederich (≡ Dactylospora mangrovei E.B.G.Jones), Sclerococcum microsporum (Etayo) Ertz & Diederich (≡ Dactylospora microspora Etayo), Sclerococcum ophthalmizae Coppins (from Scotland), Sclerococcum orygmaeum (Nyl.) Ertz & Diederich (≡ Lecidea orygmaea Nyl.), Sclerococcum parasitaster (Nyl.) Ertz & Diederich (≡ Lecidea parasitaster Nyl.), Sclerococcum parasiticum (Flörke) Ertz & Diederich (≡ Lecidea parasitica Flörke), Sclerococcum parellarium (Nyl.) Ertz & Diederich (≡ Lecidea parellaria Nyl.), Sclerococcum pertusariicola (Tuck.) Ertz & Diederich (≡ Buellia pertusariicola Tuck.), Sclerococcum pleiospermum (Triebel) Ertz & Diederich (≡ Dactylospora pleiosperma Triebel), Sclerococcum polysporum (Triebel) Ertz & Diederich (≡ Dactylospora polyspora Triebel), Sclerococcum porphyreum (Hafellner & Kalb) Ertz & Diederich (≡ Dactylospora porphyrea Hafellner & Kalb), Sclerococcum protothallinum (Anzi) Ertz & Diederich (≡ Abrothallus protothallinus Anzi), Sclerococcum purpurascens (Triebel) Ertz & Diederich (≡ Dactylospora purpurascens Triebel), Sclerococcum pyrenaicum (Etayo) Ertz & Diederich (≡ Dactylospora pyrenaica Etayo), Sclerococcum rhyparizae (Arnold) Ertz & Diederich (≡ Dactylospora rhyparizae Arnold), Sclerococcum rimulicola (Müll.Arg.) Ertz & Diederich (≡ Buellia rimulicola Müll.Arg.), Sclerococcum rostrupii (Alstrup) Ertz & Diederich (≡ Dactylospora rostrupii Alstrup), Sclerococcum saxatile (Schaer.) Ertz & Diederich (≡ Calicium saxatile Schaer.), Sclerococcum saxatile var. laureri (Hafellner) Ertz & Diederich (≡ Dactylospora saxatilis var. laureri Hafellner), Sclerococcum suburceolatum (Coppins & Fryday) Ertz & Diederich (≡ Dactylospora suburceolata Coppins & Fryday), Sclerococcum tegularum (Arnold) Ertz & Diederich (≡ Buellia tegularum Arnold), Sclerococcum urceolatum (Th.Fr.) Ertz & Diederich (≡ Buellia urceolata Th.Fr.), Sclerococcum vrijmoediae (K.L.Pang, S.Y.Guo, Alias, Hafellner & E.B.G.Jones) Ertz & Diederich (≡ Dactylospora vrijmoediae K.L.Pang, S.Y.Guo, Alias, Hafellner & E.B.G.Jones), Scutula curvispora (D.Hawksw. & Miądl.) Diederich (≡ Libertiella curvispora D.Hawksw. & Miądl.), Scutula didymospora (D.Hawksw. & Miądl.) Diederich (≡ Libertiella didymospora D.Hawksw. & Miądl.), Stigmidium haesitans (Nyl.) Diederich (≡ Verrucaria haesitans Nyl.), Stigmidium parvum (Henssen) Diederich (≡ Pharcidia parva Henssen). Dactylospora Körb. placed in synonymy with Sclerococcum Fr., Phaeopyxis Rambold & Triebel placed in synonymy with Bachmanniomyces D.Hawksw., Phyllosticta uncialicola Zopf placed in synonymy with Bachmanniomyces punctum (A.Massal.) Diederich & Pino-Bodas, Sclerococcaceae Réblová, Unter. & W.Gams placed in synonymy with Dactylosporaceae Bellem. & Hafellner, Sclerophyton occidentale Herre lectotypified and placed in synonymy with Sclerococcum parasiticum.
    URL: http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1639/0007-2745-121.3.340
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  • Diederich, P./ Zimmerman, E./ Sikaroodi, M./ Ghobad-Nejhad, M./ Lawrey, J.D. 2018: A first lichenicolous Corticium species (Corticiaceae, Corticiales), described from Thamnolia in Switzerland. - Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois 120: 49-56. [RLL List # 256 / Rec.# 40879]
    Abstract: The new lichenicolous fungus, Corticium silviae Diederich, E.Zimm. & Lawrey is described from Switzerland, where it grows on Thamnolia. Phylogenetic results also suggest that Limonomyces should best be regarded as a synonym of Laetisaria, a genus that has a sister position to Marchandiomyces. The following new combinations are proposed: Laetisaria buckii (Diederich & Lawrey) Diederich, Lawrey & Ghobad-Nejhad (= Marchandiomyces buckii), L. culmigena (R.K.Webster & D.A.Reid) Diederich, Lawrey & Ghobad-Nejhad (= Exobasidiellum culmigenum), L. marsonii (Diederich & Lawrey) Diederich, Lawrey & Ghobad-Nejhad (= M. marsonii), L. nothofagicola (Diederich & Lawrey) Diederich, Lawrey & Ghobad-Nejhad (= M. nothofagicola), L. roseipellis (Stalpers & Loer.) Diederich, Lawrey & Ghobad-Nejhad (= Limonomyces roseipellis).
    Countries/Continents: Europe
    Notes: New: Corticium silviae Diederich, E.Zimm. & Lawrey (on Thamnolia from Switzerland), Laetisaria buckii (Diederich & Lawrey) Diederich, Lawrey & Ghobad-Nejhad (≡ Marchandiomyces buckii Diederich & Lawrey), L. marsonii (Diederich & Lawrey) Diederich, Lawrey & Ghobad-Nejhad (≡ M. marsonii Diederich & Lawrey).
    URL: https://www.snl.lu/publications/bulletin/SNL_2018_120_049_056.pdf
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  • Diederich, P./ D. Ertz/ J. D. Lawrey/ M. Sikaroodi/ W. A. Untereiner 2013: Molecular data place the hyphomycetous lichenicolous genus Sclerococcum close to Dactylospora (Eurotiomycetes) and S. parmeliae in Cladophialophora (Chaetothyriales). - Fungal Diversity 58(1): 61-72. [RLL List # 230 / Rec.# 34404]
    Keywords: Anamorphic fungi/ Capronia/ Conidial fungi/ Hyphomycetes/ Parasitic fungi
    Abstract: The lichenicolous anamorphic fungus Sclerococcum parmeliae was isolated in pure culture, and ITS, nuLSU and mtSSU sequences were obtained from these isolates. For comparison, sequences from S. sphaerale, the generic type, were obtained directly from freshly collected specimens. Phylogenetic analyses place S. sphaerale with species of Dactylospora and an unidentified lichen-inhabiting isolate in a strongly supported clade that is sister to a lineage comprising members of the Chaetothyriales and Pyrenulales. In contrast, S. parmeliae is inferred as a member of the Herpotrichiellaceae (Chaetothyriales) and belongs to a robustly supported clade that also includes species of Cladophialophora, Capronia semiimmersa, and Phialophora verrucosa. Within the Herpotrichiellaceae, S. parmeliae most closely resembles members of the anamorph genus Cladophialophora. Accordingly, we propose the transfer of S. parmeliae and the morphologically similar species S. cladoniae, S. hawksworthii and S. normandinae to Cladophialophora. A new lichenicolous species, Clad. megalosporae, collected twice on Megalospora in Florida and Papua New Guinea, is also described. © 2012 Mushroom Research Foundation.
    Notes: New species: Cladophialophora megalosporae
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13225-012-0179-4
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  • Diederich, P./ J. D. Lawrey/ M. Capdet/ S. Pereira/ A. I. Romero/ J. Etayo/ A. Flakus/ M. Sikaroodi/ D. Ertz 2014: New lichen-associated bulbil-forming species of Cantharellales (Basidiomycetes). - Lichenologist 46(3): 333-347. [RLL List # 235 / Rec.# 35536]
    Keywords: Europe/ Lichenicolous fungi/ Sclerotia/ South America
    Abstract: Two new genera and four new species of bulbil-forming basidiomycetes are described. Phylogenetic analyses of nuLSU and ITS sequences place them in Cantharellales. A facultative lichenicolous species with yellow to orange-yellow bulbils from South America groups with the type of Burgella and is consequently described as B. lutea. The new species and genus Burgellopsis nivea is introduced for material from Scotland with white bulbils overgrowing saxicolous lichens. An obligate lichenicolous species with particularly large, applanate bulbils developing over Peltigerales in South America could not be placed accurately using ITS sequences and is described as the new species and genus Bulbilla applanata. A European species with brown, facultatively lichenicolous bulbils grouped with Ceratobasidium and Thanatephorus species and is described as the new Ceratobasidium bulbillifaciens. © British Lichen Society 2014.
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0024282913000583
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  • Diederich, P./ J. D. Lawrey/ M. Sikaroodi/ P. P. G. van den Boom/ D. Ertz 2012: Briancoppinsia, a new coelomycetous genus of Arthoniaceae (Arthoniales) for the lichenicolous Phoma cytospora, with a key to this and similar taxa. - Fungal Diversity 52: 1-12. [RLL List # 226 / Rec.# 33688]
    Keywords: Anamorphic fungi/ Arthonia/ Conidial fungi/ Mitosporic fungi
    Abstract: Morphological, anatomical, chemical and molecular data suggest that a relatively common lichenicolous coelomycete on Lecanora conizaeoides is conspecific with Phoma cytospora, previously known only from parmelioid lichens, and that further populations on Cladonia and Pertusaria belong to the same species. This species is distinguished from Phoma by several taxonomically important characters and obviously represents a previously unrecognized genus, for which the name Briancoppinsia is introduced. Phylogenetic analyses using nuLSU and mtSSU sequences of isolates obtained in pure culture suggest that the new genus belongs to the Arthoniaceae (Arthoniales). This is the first obligate lichenicolous, non-lichenized anamorph confirmed to belong to the Arthoniales based on molecular data. © Kevin D. Hyde 2011.
    – doi:10.1007/s13225-011-0105-1

    Notes: New genus: Briancoppinsia Diederich, Ertz, Lawrey & van den Boom; new combination: Briancoppinsia cytospora (Vouaux) Diederich, Ertz, Lawrey & van den Boom.
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13225-011-0105-1
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  • Ertz, D./ Diederich, P./ Lawrey, J.D./ Berger, F./ Freebury, C.E./ Coppins, B./ Gardiennet, A./ Hafellner, J. 2015: Phylogenetic insights resolve Dacampiaceae (Pleosporales) as polyphyletic: Didymocyrtis (Pleosporales, Phaeosphaeriaceae) with Phoma-like anamorphs resurrected and segregated from Polycoccum (Trypetheliales, Polycoccaceae fam. nov.). - Fungal Diversity 74(1): 53-89. [RLL List # 240 / Rec.# 36528]
    Keywords: Dothideomycetes/ Leptosphaeria/ Diederichia/ Diederichomyces/ Lichenicolous fungi/ Phylogeny
    Abstract: A phylogenetic analysis of nuLSU and ITS sequences representing genera previously included in Dacampiaceae indicates that the family is strongly polyphyletic and that the type species of Dacampia is placed in Pleosporales. The genus Munkovalsaria s. str. is placed in Didymosphaeriaceae (Pleosporales). Polycoccum s. str. and two species of Clypeococcum are shown to form a new lineage sister to the Trypetheliaceae in Trypetheliales and described here as Polycoccaceae. Other members of Polycoccum s. lat. are included in the Pleosporales and are closely related to lichenicolous Phoma-like species of the family Phaeosphaeriaceae. The genus Didymocyrtis is resurrected for these species and for lichenicolous species previously assigned to Diederichia, Diederichomyces, Leptosphaeria and Phoma. The genera Diederichia and Diederichomyces are synonymized with Didymocyrtis. The new combinations Didymocyrtis bryonthae, D. cladoniicola, D. foliaceiphila, D. infestans, D. kaernefeltii, D. melanelixiae, D. pseudeverniae, D. ramalinae, D. slaptoniensis and D. xanthomendozae are made, and the new name D. epiphyscia is introduced for Phoma physciicola. Some anamorph-teleomorph relationships are resolved, such as Didymocyrtis ramalinae–Phoma ficuzzae and Didymocyrtis consimilis–Phoma caloplacae, the phylogenetic results being supported by single ascospore cultures that lead to the asexual stage producing pycnidia and conidia in culture. Speciation by host switching is assumed to be important in the genus Didymocyrtis. An identification key to Didymocyrtis species is provided.
    – doi:10.1007/s13225-015-0345-6

    Notes: Dacampiaceae is polyphyletic, resulting in multiple changes. New synonyms: Diederichia D. Hawksw. and Diederichomyces Crous & Trakunyingcharoen placed in synonymy with Didymocyrtis Vain., Phoma ficuzzae Brackel placed in synonymy with Didymocyrtis ramalinae. New: Didymocyrtis bryonthae (Arnold) Hafellner (≡ Endococcus bryonthae Arnold), Didymocyrtis cladoniicola (Diederich, Kocourk. & Etayo) Ertz & Diederich (≡ Phoma cladoniicola Diederich, Kocourk. & Etayo), Didymocyrtis epiphyscia Ertz & Diederich nom. nov. pro. Phoma physciicola Keissler, Didymocyrtis foliaceiphila (Diederich, Kocourk. & Etayo) Ertz & Diederich (≡ Phoma foliaceiphila Diederich, Kocourk. & Etayo), Didymocyrtis infestans (Speg.) Hafellner (≡ Didymosphaeria infestans Speg.), Didymocyrtis kaernefeltii (S. Y. Kondr.) Hafellner (≡ Polycoccum kaernefeltii S. Y. Kondr.), Didymocyrtis melanelixiae (Brackel) Diederich, R.C. Harris & Etayo (≡ Phoma melanelixiae Brackel), Didymocyrtis pseudeverniae (Etayo & Diederich) Ertz & Diederich (≡ Macrophomina pseudeverniae Etayo & Diederich), Didymocyrtis ramalinae (Roberge ex Desm.) Ertz, Diederich & Hafellner (≡ Sphaeria ramalinae Roberge ex Desm.), Didymocyrtis slaptoniensis (D. Hawksw.) Hafellner & Ertz(≡ Polycoccum slaptoniense D. Hawksw.), Didymocyrtis xanthomendozae (Diederich & Freebury) Diederich & Freebury (≡ Phoma xanthomendozae Diederich & Freebury), Polycoccaceae Ertz, Hafellner & Diederich (type Polycoccum Saut. ex Körb.).
    URL: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13225-015-0345-6
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  • Ertz, D./ J. D. Lawrey/ R. S. Common/ P. Diederich 2014: Molecular data resolve a new order of Arthoniomycetes sister to the primarily lichenized Arthoniales and composed of black yeasts, lichenicolous and rock-inhabiting species. - Fungal Diversity 66: 113-137. [RLL List # 268 / Rec.# 35862]
    Abstract: Lichenicolous fungi belonging to the anamorph-typified genus Phaeosporobolus and to the teleomorph-typified genus Lichenostigma were isolated in pure culture or sequenced directly, with nuLSU and mtSSU sequences obtained. Phylogenetic analyses place the species of Phaeosporobolus in a strongly supported clade with the generic type of Lichenostigma (L. maureri), the genus Phaeococcomyces and several melanized rock-inhabiting isolates. This strongly supported nonlichenized lineage is sister to the primarily lichenized Arthoniales in the Arthoniomycetes and is here described as the Lichenostigmatales. The new order is characterized by cells multiplying by budding, either representing black yeasts, or species in which conidiomata and ascomata are entirely made of an organised agglomeration of spherical yeast-like cells. This way of life is not only very different from all other Arthoniomycetes that exist only in the mycelial stage, but ascomata and conidiomata representing a dense and organised agglomeration of yeast cells might be unique amongst fungi. A further difference with the Arthoniales is the absence of paraphysoids. Phylogenetic results suggest that Phaeosporobolus usneae is the asexual stage of Lichenostigma maureri. Most species of Phaeosporobolus are transferred to the genus Lichenostigma except P. trypethelii, for which the new genus Etayoa is described. The genus Diederimyces is reduced into synonymy with Lichenostigma. Several other members of Lichenostigma are placed in the Dothideomycetes and are intermixed with Lichenothelia species.
    – doi:10.1007/s13225-013-0250-9

    URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs13225-013-0250-9
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  • Golojuch, ST/ Lawrey, JD 1988: Quantitative variation in vulpinic and pinastric acids produced by Tuckermannopsis pinastri (lichen-forming Ascomycotina, Parmeliaceae). - American Journal of Botany 75(12): 1871-1875. [RLL List # 137 / Rec.# 6791]
    Keywords: PINASTRIC/ VULPINIC/ ADAPTATIONS/ VARIATIONS/ CHEMISTRY/ ANTIHERBIVORE/ TUCKERMANNOPSIS/ CETRARIA
    Abstract: 3 tables. 1 figure. ["Instead, compound concentrations were correlated most closely with thallus size, with small rather than large thalli having the highest conditions of the two compounds. Inasmuch as lichen secondary compounds serve a defensive role against microorganisms and herbivores, our results suggest that small, juvenile thalli are better defended than more mature thalli." Specimens for analysis came from West Virginia.]
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  • Hyde, K. D./ E. B. G. Jones/ J.-K. Liu/ H. Ariyawansa/ E. Boehm/ S. Boonmee/ U. Braun/ P. Chomnunti/ P. W. Crous/ D.-Q. Dai/ P. Diederich/ A. Dissanayake/ M. Doilom/ F. Doveri/ S Hongsanan/ R. Jayawardena/ J. D. Lawrey/ Y.-M. Li/ Y.-X. Liu/ R. Lücking/ J. Monkai/ L. Muggia/ M. P. Nelsen/ K. L. Pang/ R. Phookamsak/ I. C. Senanayake/ C. A. Shearer/ S. Suetrong/ K.Tanaka/ K. M. Thambugala/ N. N. Wijayawardene/ S. Wikee/ H.-X. Wu/ Y. Zhang/ B. Aguirre-Hudson/ S. A. Alias/ A. Aptroot/ A. H. Bahkali/ J. L. Bezerra/ D. J. Bhat/ E. Camporesi/ E. Chukeatirote/ C. Gueidan/ D. L. Hawksworth/ K. Hirayama/ S. De Hoog/ J.-C. Kang/ K. Knudsen/ W.-J. Li/ X.-H. Li/ Z.-Y.Liu/ A. Mapook/ E. H. C. McKenzie/ A. N. Miller/ P.E. Mortimer/ A. J. L. Phillips/ H. A. Raja/ C. Scheuer/ F. Schumm/ J. E. Taylor/ Q. Tian/ S. Tibpromma/ D. N. Wanasinghe/ Y. Wang/ J.-C. Xu/ S. Yacharoen/ J.-Y.Yan/ M. Zhang 2013: Families of Dothideomycetes. - Fungal Diversity 63(1): 1-313. [RLL List # 233 / Rec.# 35062]
    Abstract:
    URL:
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  • J. D. Lawrey, M. Binder, P. Diederich, M. C. Molina, M. Sikaroodi and D. Ertz 2007: Phylogenetic diversity of lichen-associated homobasidiomycetes. - Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 44: 778-789. [RLL List # 208 / Rec.# 29620]
    Keywords: HOMOBASIDIOMYCETES/ MARCHANDIOMYCES/ MULTI-GENE ANALYSES/ SCLEROTIA/ SISTOTREMA/ EVOLUTION/ BURGOA/ BULBILLIFEROUS FUNGI/ MOLECULAR PHYLOGENETICS
    Abstract: [Study of 23 lichenicolous fungal taxa with nuclear and mitochondrial rDNA. "Phylogenetic analyses in this study indicate that a lichenicolous habit arose in four major clades. In two of these clades the habit represents a major evolutionary theme linked to the origin of well-known basidiolichens. The phylogenetic diversity of these fungi indicates that the lichenicolous habit arose recently and independently in the mushroom-forming fungi."]
    – 10.1016/j.ympev.2006.12.023

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  • J. D. Lawrey, P. Diederich, M. P. Nelsen, M. Sikaroodi, P. M. Gillevet, A. M. Brand and P. van den Boom 2011: The obligately lichenicolous genus Lichenoconium represents a novel lineage in the Dothideomycetes. - Fungal Biology 115(2): 176-187. [RLL List # 222 / Rec.# 32701]
    Keywords: ANAMORPHIC FUNGI/ COELOMYCETES/ CONIDIAL FUNGI/ MITOSPORIC FUNGI
    Abstract: [Nuclear and mitochondrial rDNA sequences from fungal cultures were isolated from four species in Lichenoconium.]
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  • J. D. Lawrey, P. Diederich, M. Sikaroodi and P. M. Gillevet 2008: Remarkable nutritional diversity of basidiomycetes in the Corticiales, including a new foliicolous species of Marchandiomyces (anamorphic Basidiomycota, Corticiaceae) from Australia. - American Journal of Botany 95(7): 816-823. [RLL List # 212 / Rec.# 30131]
    Keywords: AUSTRALIA/ NEW TAXA/ MARCHANDIOMYCES/ FOLIICOLOUS/ EPIPHYLLOUS/ CORTICIALES/ CORTICIACEAE/ LIMONOMYCES/ BULBILLIFEROUS FUNGI/ RDNA SEQUENCES
    Abstract: [New: Marchandiomyces marsonii Diederich & Lawrey sp. nov. (Queensland) and the first members of the genus from Australia. "Our phylogeny makes clear that Marchandiomyces species and their close relatives contribute significantly to the ecological diversity of the Corticiales and that this diversity is derived mainly from lignicolous ancestors."]
    – 10.3732/ajb.08000078

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  • J. D. Lawrey, R. Lücking, H. J. M. Sipman, J. L. Chaves, S. A. Redhead, F. Bungartz, M. Sikaroodi and P. M. Gillevet 2009: High concentration of basidiolichens in a single family of agaricoid mushrooms (Basidiomycota: Agaricales: Hygrophoraceae). - Mycological Research 113(10): 1154-1171. [RLL List # 217 / Rec.# 31126]
    Keywords: BASIDIOLICHENS/ AGARICOID/ HYGROPHORACEAE/ MOLECULAR PHYLOGENETICS/ DICTYONEMA/ ACANTHOLICHEN/ LICHENOMPHALIA
    Abstract: [Authors used ribosomal sequences from 52 taxa including new sequences from species of Acantholichen and Dictyonema. Authors conclude, in part, that " ... Dictyonema and Acantholichen form a monophyletic clade derived from the primarily bryophilous genus Arrhenia and sister to the enigmatic Athelia pyriformis, a species unrelated to the Atheliales for which we are proposing a new genus name Eonema. The chlorolichen genus Lichenomphalia may be polyphyletic."]
    – 10.1016/j.mycres.2009.07.016

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  • Lawrey, J. D./ P. Diederich/ M. P. Nelsen/ C. Freebury/ D. Van Den Broeck/ M. Sikaroodi/ D. Ertz 2012: Phylogenetic placement of lichenicolous Phoma species in the Phaeosphaeriaceae (Pleosporales, Dothideomycetes). - Fungal Diversity 55: 195-213. [RLL List # 228 / Rec.# 34026]
    Keywords: Anamorphic fungi/ Coelomycetes/ Conidial fungi/ Parasitic fungi
    Abstract: More than twenty species of lichenicolous fungi have been described in Phoma, a large anamorphic genus of primarily plant-associated pathogens with broad geographic distributions. We obtained nuclear and mitochondrial rDNA sequences from 19 fungal cultures isolated from specimens representing four described and two undescribed lichenicolous species in the genus. Our multilocus phylogeny indicates that lichenicolous Phoma species represent at least two phylogenetically distinct clades in the Phaeosphaeriaceae, one including a new species, Phoma puncteliae, isolated from a specimen of Punctelia rudecta collected in Maryland, USA, and another group of primarily lichenicolous species. This latter group includes four described lichenicolous Phoma species, an unidentified melanized rock fungus, and a new lichenicolous Phoma species isolated from Xanthomendoza species collected in Canada that we are naming P. xanthomendozae. Some specimens in this clade collected from different lichen genera and species were found to be very similar genetically, which calls into question the recent practice of recognizing lichenicolous Phoma species mainly by differences in host preference. © The Mushroom Research Foundation 2012.
    Notes: New species: Phoma puncteliae Diederich & Lawrey and P. xanthomendozae Diederich & Freebury
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13225-012-0166-9
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  • Lawrey, James D 1983: Vulpinic and pinastric acids as lichen antiherbivore compounds: contrary evidence. - The Bryologist 86: 365-369. [RLL List # 120-91 / Rec.# 11181]
    Keywords: ACIDS/ HERBIVORE/ ANIMAL INTERACTIONS/ ANTIHERBIVORE/ PALLIFERA/ CETR ARIA/ VULPINIC/ PINASTRIC/ FATTY ACIDS
    Abstract: [Concentrations of vulpinic and pinastric acids in the thalli of Cetraria pinastri are too low to discourage feeding by the slug Pallifera varia. However, the fatty acids in Cetraria oakesiana "...appear to be more effective antiherbivore compounds than the vulpinic and pinastric acids of C. pinastri."]
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  • Lawrey, JD 1977: Adaptive significance of O-methylated lichen depsides and depsidones. - Lichenologist 9: 137-142. [RLL List # 99 / Rec.# 11190]
    Keywords: DEPSIDES/ DEPSIDONES/ O-METHYLATION/ ADAPTATION/ ROLES/ SQUAMATIC/ EVERNIC/ ALLELOPATHY
    Abstract: 3 figures. 2 tables. ["... squamatic and evernic acids inhibited spore germination of Funaria hygrometrica, Ceratodon purpureus and Mnium cuspidatum."]
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  • Lawrey, JD 1977: Inhibition of moss spore germination y acetone extracts of terricolous Cladonia species. - Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 104: 49-52. [RLL List # 97 / Rec.# 11191]
    Keywords: ECOLOGY/ ALLELOPATHY/ CLADONIA/ BRYOPHYTES/ MOSSES/ SPORES/ GERMINATION
    Abstract: 1 table.
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  • Lawrey, JD 1977: X-ray emission microanalysis of Cladonia cristatella from a coal strip-mining area in Ohio. - Mycologia 69: 855-860. [RLL List # 98 / Rec.# 11193]
    Keywords: CLADONIA/ OHIO/ MINING/ X-RAY EMISSION MICROANALYSIS
    Abstract: 5 figures.
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  • Lawrey, JD 1980: Calcium accumulation by lichens and transfer to lichen herbivores. - Mycologia 72: 586-594. [RLL List # 108-56 / Rec.# 11194]
    Keywords: CALCIUM/ ACCUMULATION/ HERBIVORE/ XANTHOPARMELIA/ MITE/ COLLEMBOLA/ MARYLAND/ ANIMALS/ INVERTEBRATES/ LEAD
    Abstract: 1 table. 3 figures. [Calcium accumulated by Xanthoparmelia conspersa growing in a polluted site is transferred to two orbatid mites but not a collembolan. Calcium was detected using energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis techniques. Lead was also accumulated by the lichen species in this Potomic River area.]
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  • Lawrey, JD 1980: Correlations between lichen secondary chemistry and grazing activity by Pallifera varia. - The Bryologist 83: 328-334. [RLL List # 108-57 / Rec.# 11195]
    Keywords: CHEMISTRY/ HERBIVORE/ INVERTEBRATES/ SLUGS/ STICTIC/ PROTOCETRARIC/ FEEDING HABITS/ VIRGINIA/ OWN
    Abstract: 4 tables. [Feeding habits of the slug were investigated in Shenanoah National Park. "Slugs apparently do not feed on those lichen species most frequently encountered in the community. Rather, they appear to make food choices that are based at least in part on lichen chemistry. Stictic acid and protocetraric acid appear to function as anti-herbivore compounds in observed lichen-slug interactions."]
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  • Lawrey, JD 1980: Sexual and asexual reproductive patterns in Parmotrema (Parmeliaceae) that correlate with latitude. - The Bryologist 83: 344-350. [RLL List # 108-58 / Rec.# 11196]
    Keywords: PARMOTREMA/ PARMELIACEAE/ LATITUDE CORRELATIONS/ REPRODUCTION/ OWN
    Abstract: 2 tables. ["Most tropical species were found to produce either sexual or asexual reproductive structures, but not both. Temperate species were found to invest in mixed reproductive strategies. Mixed strategies may be selected for, not only because they maintain genetic variability, but also because they may faciliate lichenization in habitats in which suitable algal-host diversity is low. Correlations were also observed between spore size, production of asexual structures and production of perforate apothecia in fertile species of Parmotrema that suggest a conservation of reproductive tissue in species investing in large spores or asexual structures."]
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  • Lawrey, JD 1981: Evidence for competitive release in simplified saxicolous lichen communities. - American Journal of Botany 68: 1066-1073. [RLL List # 111-50 / Rec.# 11197]
    Keywords: COMPETITIVE RELEASE/ ECOLOGY/ NICHE/ PSEUDOPARMELIA/ XANTHOPARMELIA/ VIRGINIA/ SAXICOLOUS
    Abstract: 6 tables. 2 figures. [Study conducted on two Potomic River island habitats. "An examination of niche breadth and position along a light intensity gradient demonstrated that P. baltimorensis was most frequent at low light intensities and X. conspersa was most frequent at highlight intensities. However, X. conspersa exhibited a niche shift toward intermediate light intensities in the species-poor community, likely the result of reduced competitor diversity in this community since the intermediate light intensities supported the greatest number of species in the species-rich community."]
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  • Lawrey, JD 1983: Lichen herbivore preference: a test of two hypotheses. - American Journal of Botany 70: 1188-1194. [RLL List # 119-87 / Rec.# 11198]
    Keywords: HERBIVORES/ ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS/ FEEDING PREFERENCES/ SLUG/ PALLIFERA/ CHEMISTRY/ AVOIDANCE BEHAVIOR/ ANIMALS/ ADAPTATIONS
    Abstract: 5 tables. 1 figure. [Nonrandom grazing by the slug Pallifera varia was studied to test the avoidance and preference hypotheses. "Results suggest that preferred lichens had significantly lower concentrations of N, P, and Ca, and that avoided lichens produced secondary products that effectively inhibited Pallifera grazing activity. These results suggest that the avoidance hypothesis was the better explanation for nonrandom Pallifera grazing patterns. Furthermore, they suggest that lichens with the highest concentrations of essential elements are most likely to produce defense compounds, an observation that supports predictions to explain patterns of chemical defense in vascular plants."]
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  • Lawrey, JD 1984: Biology of Lichenized Fungi. - Praeger Publishers, New York. 408 pp. [RLL List # 122-51 / Rec.# 11199]
    Keywords: TEXTBOOK/ BIOLOGY/ GENERAL
    Abstract: Hundreds of illustrations. [New text is intended to "...provide a framework for experimental investigation on lichens." Contents include structure, reproduction, culture, synthesis, physiology, growth, chemical ecology and air pollution studies. Text includes an extensive bibliography.]
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  • Lawrey, JD 1986: Biological role of lichen substances. - The Bryologist 89: 111-122. [RLL List # 128-69 / Rec.# 11200]
    Keywords: ALLELOPATHY/ ANTIHERBIVORE/ ROLES/ ECOLOGY/ CHEMISTRY/ ANTIMICROBIAL/ REVIEW/ ANIMALS/ INVERTEBRATES
    Abstract: 4 tables. 3 figures. [Author reviews the biological roles of lichen substances: antimicrobial, allelopathic, and antiherbivore. Other proposed roles, including phycobiont regulators, light-screening agents, and rock mineralization and nutrient acquisition, are discussed as well.]
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  • Lawrey, JD 1986: [Review of:] K. A. Kershaw: Physiological Ecology of Lichens. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 293 pages. 1985. - The Bryologist 89: 250-251. [RLL List # 129-99 / Rec.# 11201]
    Keywords: REVIEW
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  • Lawrey, JD 1987: Nutritional ecology of lichen/moss arthropods. - In: F. Slansky & J. G. Rodriguez (eds.): Nutritional Ecology of Insects, Mites, and Spiders. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, pp. 209-233. [RLL List # 130 / Rec.# 11202]
    Keywords: NUTRITION/ FEEDING/ ANIMALS/ HERBIVORES/ INVERTEBRATES
    Abstract: 3 figures. 6 tables. [Review of herbivory on lichens and mosses by various arthropod groups with many references.]
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  • Lawrey, JD 1988: [Review of:] D. H. S. Richardson (ed.): Biological Indicators of Pollution. The Royal Irish Academy, Dublin. 1987. - The Bryologist 91(1): 70. [RLL List # 134 / Rec.# 11203]
    Keywords: REVIEW/ AIR POLLUTION
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  • Lawrey, JD 1989: Lichen secondary compounds: evidence for a correspondence between antiherbivore and antimicrobial function. - The Bryologist 92(3): 326-328. [RLL List # 138 / Rec.# 11204]
    Keywords: LICHEN ACIDS/ ANTIHERBIVORE/ ANTIMICROBIAL/ PALLIFERA/ ANIMALS/ BACTERIA
    Abstract: 2 tables. ["The lichen extracts consistently inhibited gram-positive bacteria used in the assays, and the order of effectiveness was the same as it had been against the herbivore. Pure lichen substances were also found to vary in effectiveness in these assays. These results suggest that lichen secondary substances can defend against attack by both herbivores and microorganisms; however, they are apparently not designed to defend specifically against either."]
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  • Lawrey, JD 1990: Obituary. Mason Ellsworth Hale, Jr. 23 September 1928--23 April 1990. - Lichenologist 22(4): 405-407. [RLL List # 141 / Rec.# 11205]
    Keywords: OBITUARY/ HALE
    Abstract: [A brief biography of Mason Hale.]
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  • Lawrey, JD 1991: [Review of:] : Biotic interactions in lichen community development: a review. . - Lichenologist 23(3): 205-214. [RLL List #  / Rec.# 11206]
    Keywords: ALLELOPATHY/ COMPETITION/ COMPETITIVE EXCLUSIONS/ DISEASE/ LONGEVITY/ PREDATION
    Abstract: 1 tab. [Review of competition and related factors in lichens.]
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  • Lawrey, JD 1991: The species-area curve as an index of disturbance in saxicolous lichen communities. - The Bryologist 94(4): 377-382. [RLL List #  / Rec.# 11207]
    Keywords: AIR POLLUTION/ DISTURBANCE/ SPECIES-AREA CURVES
    Abstract: 3 tab. [Study conducted at three sites in Maryland and Virginia that are exposed to varying degrees of pollution. "It is suggested that the species-area curve provides a usefull method for assessing pollution damage to lichen communities."]
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  • Lawrey, JD 1992: Natural and randomly-assembled lichen communities compared using the species area curve. - The Bryologist 95(2): 137-141. [RLL List # 148 / Rec.# 11208]
    Keywords: COMMUNITY ECOLOGY/ POLLUTION/ SPECIES-AREA CURVES
    Abstract: 3 fig. [Involves computer manipulation of data from a previously published study to evaluate the species-area curve. "These results suggest that simplification results in alterations of community composition that make it more random. They also suggest that undisturbed natural saxicolous lichen communities are assemblages regulated not by random processes, but rather by interactions that limit the number of species that can co-occur in the habitat."]
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  • Lawrey, JD 1993: Chemical ecology of Hobsonia christiansenii, a lichenicolous hyphomycete. - American Journal of Botany 80(10): 1109-1113. [RLL List # 153 / Rec.# 11209]
    Keywords: HOBSONIA/ HYPHOMYCETES/ LICHEN PARASITES/ LICHENICOLOUS/ PROTECTION
    Abstract: 5 tab. [Quantitative field studies in Maryland determined that this lichen parasite was growing almost exclusively on Flavoparmelia baltimorensis. Various laboratory experiments were also performed, including some designed to determine the ability of the parasite to grow on various lichen species which have had their phenolic compounds extracted.]
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  • Lawrey, JD 1993: Lichens as monitors of pollutant elements at permanent sites in Maryland and Virginia. - The Bryologist 96(3): 339-341. [RLL List # 153 / Rec.# 11210]
    Keywords: AIR POLLUTION/ METALS/ NITROGEN/ SULFUR
    Abstract: 4 tab. [Reports results of long-term air pollution studies using Flavoparmelia baltimorensis at three sites of increasing distance from urban Washington, D.C.]
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  • Lawrey, JD 1993: [Review of:] : [Review:] W. Reisser (Ed.). Algae and Symbioses: Plants, Animals, Fungi, Viruses, Interactions Explored. xii + 746 pages. Biopress Limited, Bristol, England. 1992. . - The Bryologist 96(7): 282-283. [RLL List # 152 / Rec.# 11211]
    Keywords: REVIEW
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  • Lawrey, JD 1995: Lichen Allelopathy: A Review. - In: Inderjit/Dakshini, KMM/Einhellig, FA (eds.): Allelopathy. Organisms, Processes, and Applications. ACS Symposium Series, American Chemical Society, Washington, pp. 26-38. [RLL List # 160 / Rec.# 11212]
    Keywords: ALLELOPATHY/ CHEMISTRY/ REVIEW
    Abstract: 2 fig. 3 tab. [Review paper with 53 references.]
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  • Lawrey, JD 1995: [Review of:] : [Review:] A. Orange. Lichens on Trees: A Guide to Some of the Commonest Species. British Plant Life 3; 1-48. National Museum of Wales, Cathays Park, Cardiff. 1994. . - The Bryologist 98(3): 431. [RLL List # 160 / Rec.# 11214]
    Keywords: BOOK REVIEW
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  • Lawrey, JD 1995: The chemical ecology of lichen mycoparasites. - Canadian Journal of Botany 73(Suppl. 1): 603-608. [RLL List # 161 / Rec.# 11213]
    Keywords: ALLELOPATHY/ CHEMICAL DEFENSE/ CHEMICAL ECOLOGY/ HOBSONIA/ LICHEN PARASITES/ LICHENICOLOUS/ NECTRIA
    Abstract: 3 fig. 3 tab. ["Recent field and laboratory studies of lichen parasites from a number of fungal groups indicate that chemistry is indeed involved in these interactions."]
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  • Lawrey, JD 1997: Isolation, culture, and degradative behavior of the lichen parasite Hobsonia santessonii. - Symbiosis 23(2+3): 107-116. [RLL List # 169 / Rec.# 11215]
    Keywords: ALLELOCHEMICALS/ ALLELOPATHY/ HOBSONIA/ HOST-PARASITE INTERACTIONS/ HYPHOMYCETES/ LICHEN PARASITES/ LICHENICOLOUS
    Abstract: 2 fig. 1 tab. [Comparison in the laboratory of the degradative abilities of the lichenicolous Hobsonia santessonii and related but nonlichenicolous H. mirabilis.]
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  • Lawrey, JD 2000: Chemical interactions between two lichen degrading fungi. - Journal of Chemical Ecology 26(8): 1821-1831. [RLL List # 180 / Rec.# 21175]
    Keywords: ALLELOPATHY/ FUSARIUM/ INFECTION/ LICHENICOLOUS/ NECTRIA
    Abstract: 4 fig. 1 tab. [Infection of Punctelia rudecta by lichenicolous fungus Nectria parmeliae seems to require previous infection by a species of Fusarium.]
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  • Lawrey, JD 2002: Isolation and culture of lichenicolous fungi. - In: Kranner, I/Beckett, RP/Varma, AK (eds.): Protocols in Lichenology. Culturing, Biochemistry, Ecophysiology and Use in Biomonitoring. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 75-84. [RLL List # 188 / Rec.# 23638]
    Keywords: CULTURE/ ISOLATION/ LICHENICOLOUS/ METHODS
    Abstract: 2 fig.
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  • Lawrey, J.D./ Etayo, J./ Dal-Forno, M./ Driscoll, K./ Diederich, P. 2015: Molecular data support establishment of a new genus for the lichenicolous species Neobarya usneae (Hypocreales). - The Bryologist 118(1): 83-92. [RLL List # 240 / Rec.# 36420]
    Keywords: Ascomycetes/ fungi/ mycoparasitism/ phylogenetics/ nomenclature/ taxonomy
    Abstract: Neobarya usneae Etayo is a relatively uncommon lichenicolous fungus that forms distinctive obpyriform ascomata on species of Usnea. The species is one of five known lichenicolous species in Neobarya, a genus established in the Clavicipitaceae that contains a variety of mycoparasitic species. The only molecular data for Neobarya species available in GenBank are for unidentified Neobarya species. We obtained sequences of ITS and nrLSU representing a culture and herbarium specimens of N. usneae from New Brunswick, Canada, and from a herbarium specimen of N. parasitica (Fuckel) Lowen, the type species of the genus, collected in Luxembourg, to determine the phylogenetic placement of these species. Our results indicate that N. usneae is not closely related to the type of Neobarya in the Clavicipitaceae, but is instead a member of the Hypocreaceae, the first lichenicolous species known for certain from this Hypocrealean family. Based on these results, we are now establishing a new genus, Lichenobarya, for N. usneae in the Hypocreaceae, and encouraging further study of other Neobarya species to establish their phylogenetic relationships, given the potential for genetic heterogeneity in the group.
    – doi:10.1639/0007-2745-118.1.083

    Genera/Families: Hypocreaceae/Lichenobarya/Neobarya
    Notes: New: Lichenobarya Etayo, Diederich & Lawrey, Lichenobarya usneae (Etayo) Etayo, Diederich & Lawrey (≡ Neobarya usneae Etayo).
    URL: http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1639/0007-2745-118.1.083
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  • Lawrey, J.D./ Sikaroodi, M./ Gillevet, P.M./ Diederich, P. 2020: A new species of bulbil-forming lichenicolous fungi represents an isolated clade in the Cantharellales. - The Bryologist 123(2): 155-162. [RLL List # 260 / Rec.# 42207]
    Abstract: Lichenicolous species are widely distributed in the Basidiomycota, and many are known to produce sclerotia or bulbils with few additional structures to permit taxonomic placement. The Cantharellales include many of these species and we here describe a new genus and species discovered in Austria that grows over Physcia aipolia and P. stellaris and forms minute dark reddish brown bulbils reminiscent of Ceratobasidium bulbillifaciens but much smaller in size. We obtained sequences of ITS and nuLSU rDNA representing the herbarium specimen of the species, and initial searches in GenBank indicated it was a member of the Cantharellales, with closest relatives in the genus Minimedusa. We inferred its phylogenetic placement in the order using an existing dataset that included all known lichenicolous species, augmented by sequences obtained by BLAST searches in GenBank. Our results indicate that the unknown is not closely related to any described lichenicolous species or to any other described bulbilliferous species in the order. Based on these results, we are now establishing a new genus and species, Bergerella atrofusca, in the Cantharellales family Hydnaceae.
    – doi:10.1639/0007-2745-123.2.155

    Notes: New: Bergerella atrofusca Diederich & Lawrey (from Austria on Physcia aipolia, P. stellaris).
    URL: https://bioone.org/journals/The-Bryologist/volume-123/issue-2/0007-2745-123.2.155/A-new-species-of-bulbil-forming-lichenicolous-fungi-represents-an/10.1639/0007-2745-123.2.155.short
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  • Lawrey, J.D./ Zimmermann, E./ Sikaroodi, M./ Diederich, P. 2016: Phylogenetic diversity of bulbil-forming lichenicolous fungi in Cantharellales including a new genus and species. - The Bryologist 119(4): 341-349. [RLL List # 245 / Rec.# 38405]
    Keywords: Basidiomycota/ Clavulinaceae/ Corticiales/ fungi/ mycoparasitism/ phylogenetics/ nomenclature/ taxonomy
    Abstract: Lichenicolous species are widely distributed in the Basidiomycota, and many are known to produce sclerotia or bulbils with few additional structures to permit taxonomic placement. The Cantharellales include many of these species and we here describe a new species that grows over Cladonia rangiferina and forms yellow-orange, initially immersed bulbils similar to Burgella flavoparmeliae Diederich & Lawrey, a familiar species in the order. We obtained sequences of nuLSU representing an isolated culture and herbarium specimen of the species, and initial searches in GenBank indicated it was a member of the Cantharellales. We inferred its phylogenetic placement in the order using an existing dataset that included all known lichenicolous species. Our results indicate that it is not closely related to any described lichenicolous species or to any other described bulbilliferous species in the order. Based on these results, we are now establishing a new genus and species, Neoburgoa freyi, in the Hydnaceae sensu Hibbett et al. (2014). We also introduce the new name Adamflakia for the genus Bulbilla as the latter coincides with the technical term ‘bulbilla' used in previous descriptions of bulbil-forming species and is therefore not validly published following the ICN (Art. 20.2); Adamflakia applanata comb. nov. is proposed.
    – doi:10.1639/0007-2745-119.4.341

    Notes: New: Adamflakia Diederich & Lawrey nomen novum pro. Bulbilla Diederich, Flakus & Etayo nom. inval., A. applanata Diederich & Lawrey nomen novum pro. B. applanata nom. inval., Neoburgoa Diederich, Zimmermann & Lawrey (type N. freyi), N. freyi Diederich, Zimmermann & Lawrey (on Cladonia rangiferina from Switzerland).
    URL: http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1639/0007-2745-119.4.341
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  • Lawrey, JD/ Diederich, P 2003: Lichenicolous fungi: interactions, evolution, and biodiversity. - The Bryologist 106(1): 81-120. [RLL List # 190 / Rec.# 24248]
    Keywords: BIODIVERSITY/ COEVOLUTION/ EVOLUTION/ LICHENICOLOUS/ PARASITES/ REVIEW
    Abstract: 4 fig. 6 tab. [Detailed review.]
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  • Lawrey, JD/ Hale, ME", Jr 1977: Natural history of Plummers Island, Maryland XXIII. Studies on lichen grwoth rate at Plummers Island, Maryland. - Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 90: 698-725. [RLL List # 99 / Rec.# 11183]
    Keywords: GROWTH RATES/ SAXICOLOUS/ PARMELIA/ MARYLAND/ PLUMMERS ISLAND
    Abstract: 34 figures. 2 tables. [Detailed study. Earlier reports of this series are by other authors on non-lichenological subjects.]
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  • Lawrey, JD/ Hale, ME", Jr. 1979: Lichen growth response to stress induced by automobile exhaust pollution. - Science 204: 423-424. [RLL List # 104-63 / Rec.# 11182]
    Keywords: AIR POLLUTION/ LEAD/ PASUDOPARMELIA/ AUTOMOBILE EXHAUST
    Abstract: 1 figure. 2 tables. [Young thalli of Pseudoparmelia baltimorensis showed slower growth rates under conditions of a high atmospheric lead burden than those with lower lead burden. Larger thalli were not effected under the stress conditions. "Once a minimum thallus size is attained, the stress tolerance of the lichen increases."]
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  • Lawrey, JD/ Rossman, AY/ Lowen, R 1994: Inhibition of selected hypocrealean fungi by lichen secondary metabolites. - Mycologia 86(4): 502-506. [RLL List # 156 / Rec.# 11187]
    Keywords: ALLELOCHEMICALS/ ALLELOPATHY/ CHEMISTRY ROLE/ HOST-PARASITE INTERACTIONS/ HYPOCREALES/ INHIBITION/ LICHENICOLOUS/ NECTRIA/ NECTRIOPSIS/ PRONECTRIA
    Abstract: 1 fig. 1 tab. ["Isolates of four hypocrealean fungi were used in laboratory experiments designed to determine their ability to degrade lichen tissues and the extent to which lichen secondary metabolites inhibit this degradation. Two fungi (Nectria parmeliae and Pronectria oligospora) were originally isolated from lichens and two (Nectriopsis squamulosa and Nectria zonata) were isolated from nonlichen substrates. A series of growth experiments was done on five test lichens: Flavoparmelia baltimorensis, Xanthoparmelia conspersa, Punctelia rudecta, Myelochroa aurulenta, and Lasallia papulosa."]
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  • Lawrey, JD/ Rudolph, ED 1975: Lichen accumulation of some heavy metals from acidic surface substrates of coal mine ecosystems in southeastern Ohio. - Ohio Jour. Sci. 75: 113-117. [RLL List # 93-76 / Rec.# 11188]
    Keywords: HEAVY METALS/ OHIO/ AIR POLLUTION/ ACCUMULATION/ COAL MINES
    Abstract: 3 tab.
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  • Lawrey, JD/ Torzilli, AP/ Chandhoke, V 1999: Destruction of lichen chemical defenses by a fungal pathogen. - American Journal of Botany 86(2): 184-189. [RLL List # 174 / Rec.# 11189]
    Keywords: ALLELOPATHY/ CHEMICAL DEFENSE/ CHEMISTRY ROLE/ FUSARIUM/ LASALLIA/ LICHENICOLOUS/ MARCHANDIOMYCES
    Abstract: 5 fig. [The lichenicolous fungus Marchandiomyces corallinus was observed to be able to grow on Lasallia species only in the presence of a species of Fusarium. Subsequent experiments indicate the Fusarium produces enzymes which degrade lichen acids, allowing the lichenicolous fungus to infect the Lasallia.]
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  • Lücking, R./ Dal Forno, M./ Moncada, B./ Coca, L.F./ Vargas-Mendoza, L.Y./ Aptroot, A./ Arias, L.J./ Besal, B./ Bungartz, F./ Cabrera-Amaya, D.M./ Cáceres, M.E.S./ Chaves, J.L./ Eliasaro, S./ Gutiérrez, M.C./ Marin, J.E.H./ Herrera-Campos, M.A./ Holgado-Rojas, M.E./ Jonitz, H./ Kukwa, M./ Lucheta,F./ Madriñán, S./ Marcelli, M.P./ Martins, S.M.A./ Mercado-Díaz, J.A./ Molina, J.A./ Morales, E.A./ Nelson, P.R./ Nugra, F./ Ortega,F./ Paredes, T./ Patiño, A.L./ Peláez-Pulido, R.N. / Pérez, R.E.P./ Perlmutter, G.B./ Rivas-Plata, E./ Robayo, J./ Rodríguez, C./ Simijaca, D.F./ Soto-Medina, E./ Spielmann, A.A./ Suárez-Corredor, A./ Torres, J.-M../ Vargas, C.A./ Yánez-Ayabaca, A./ Weerakoon, G./ Wilk, K./ Pacheco, M.C./ Diazgranados, M./ Brokamp, G./ Borsch, T./ Gillevet, P.M./ Sikaroodi, M./ Lawrey, J.D. 2017[2016]: Turbo-taxonomy to assemble a megadiverse lichen genus: seventy new species of Cora (Basidiomycota: Agaricales: Hygrophoraceae), honouring David Leslie Hawksworth’s seventieth birthday. - Fungal Diversity 84(1): 139-207. [RLL List # 248 / Rec.# 39198]
    Abstract: Following a large-scale phylogenetic study of the lichenized genus Cora (Basidiomycota: Agaricales: Hygrophoraceae), we formally describe 70 new species, honouring the seventieth birthday of David Leslie Hawksworth, one of the preeminent figures in mycology and lichenology in the past 50 years. Based on an updated phylogeny using the ITS fungal barcoding locus, we now recognize 189 taxa in a genus that until recently was considered to represent a single species; including this contribution, 92 of these are formally recognized, including five taxa based on historical names or collections that have not been sequenced. Species of Cora can be recognized by a combination of morphological (size, colour, lobe configuration, surface hairs, hymenophore size and shape), anatomical (thallus thickness, cortex structure, photobiont type, hyphal papillae), and ecogeographical features (substrate, habitat, distribution), and a keytable allowing the identification of all accepted taxa is provided. The new species are: Cora accipiter Moncada, Madriñán & Lücking spec. nov., C. applanata Moncada, Soto-Medina & Lücking spec. nov., C. arachnodavidea Moncada, Dal Forno & Lücking spec. nov., C. arborescens Dal Forno, Chaves & Lücking spec. nov., C. arcabucana Moncada, C. Rodríguez & Lücking spec. nov., C. aturucoa Lücking, Moncada & C. Vargas spec. nov., C. auriculeslia Moncada, Yánez-Ayabaca & Lücking spec. nov., C. barbifera Moncada, Patiño & Lücking spec. nov., C. boleslia Lücking, E. Morales & Dal Forno spec. nov., C. caliginosa Holgado, Rivas Plata & Perlmutter spec. nov., C. campestris Dal Forno, Eliasaro & Spielmann spec. nov., C. canari Nugra, Dal Forno & Lücking spec. nov., C. caraana Lücking, Martins & Lucheta spec. nov., C. casasolana Moncada, R.-E. Pérez & Lücking spec. nov., C. caucensis Moncada, M. Gut. & Lücking spec. nov., C. celestinoa Moncada, Cabrera-Amaya & Lücking spec. nov., C. comaltepeca Moncada, R.-E. Pérez & Herrera-Camp. spec. nov., C. corani Lücking, E. Morales & Dal Forno spec. nov., C. corelleslia Moncada, A. Suárez-Corredor & Lücking spec. nov., C. crispoleslia Moncada, J. Molina & Lücking spec. nov., C. cuzcoensis Holgado, Rivas Plata & Perlmutter spec. nov., C. dalehana Moncada, Madriñán & Lücking spec. nov., C. davibogotana Lücking, Moncada & Coca spec. nov., C. davicrinita Moncada, Madriñán & Lücking spec. nov., C. davidia Moncada, L. Vargas & Lücking spec. nov., C. dewisanti Moncada, A. Suárez-Corredor & Lücking spec. nov., C. dulcis Moncada, R.-E. Pérez & Lücking spec. nov., C. elephas Lücking, Moncada & L. Vargas spec. nov., C. fuscodavidiana Lücking, Moncada & L. Vargas spec. nov., C. garagoa Simijaca, Moncada & Lücking spec. nov., C. gigantea Lücking, Moncada & Coca spec. nov., C. gomeziana Dal Forno, Chaves & Lücking spec. nov., C. guajalitensis Lücking, Robayo & Dal Forno spec. nov., C. hafecesweorthensis Moncada, Lücking & R. Peláez spec. nov., C. haledana Dal Forno, Chaves & Lücking spec. nov., C. hawksworthiana Dal Forno, P. Nelson & Lücking spec. nov., C. hochesuordensis Lücking, E. Morales & Dal Forno spec. nov., C. hymenocarpa Lücking, Chaves & Lawrey spec. nov., C. imi Lücking, Chaves & Lawrey spec. nov., C. itabaiana Dal Forno, Aptroot & M. Cáceres spec. nov., C. leslactuca Lücking, Moncada & R. Peláez spec. nov., C. maxima Wilk, Dal Forno & Lücking spec. nov., C. minutula Lücking, Moncada & Yánez-Ayabaca spec. nov., C. palaeotropica Weerakoon, Aptroot & Lücking spec. nov., C. palustris Dal Forno, Chaves & Lücking spec. nov., C. parabovei Dal Forno, Kukwa & Lücking spec. nov., C. paraciferrii Lücking, Moncada & J.E. Hern. spec. nov., C. paraminor Dal Forno, Chaves & Lücking spec. nov., C. pastorum Moncada, Patiño & Lücking spec. nov., C. pichinchensis Paredes, Jonitz & Dal Forno spec. nov., C. pikynasa J.-M. Torres, Moncada & Lücking spec. nov., C. pseudobovei Wilk, Dal Forno & Lücking spec. nov., C. pseudocorani Lücking, E. Morales & Dal Forno spec. nov., C. putumayensis L.J. Arias, Moncada & Lücking spec. nov., C. quillacinga Moncada, F. Ortega & Lücking spec. nov., C. rothesiorum Moncada, Madriñán & Lücking spec. nov., C. rubrosanguinea Nugra, Moncada & Lücking spec. nov., C. santacruzensis Dal Forno, Bungartz & Yánez-Ayabaca, spec. nov., C. schizophylloides Moncada, C. Rodríguez & Lücking spec. nov., C. smaragdina Lücking, Rivas Plata & Chaves spec. nov., C. soredavidia Dal Forno, Marcelli & Lücking spec. nov., C. subdavicrinita Moncada, J. Molina & Lücking spec. nov., C. suturifera Nugra, Besal & Lücking spec. nov., C. terrestris Dal Forno, Chaves & Lücking spec. nov., C. terricoleslia Wilk, Dal Forno & Lücking spec. nov., C. udebeceana Moncada, R. Peláez & Lücking spec. nov., C. urceolata Moncada, Coca & Lücking spec. nov., C. verjonensis Lücking, Moncada & Dal Forno spec. nov., C. viliewoa Lücking, Chaves & Soto-Medina spec. nov., and C. yukiboa Mercado-Díaz, Moncada & Lücking spec. nov. Furthermore, the taxonomic status of the recently described or recognized species C. arachnoidea, C. aspera, C. ciferrii, and C. reticulifera, is revised.
    – doi:10.1007/s13225-016-0374-9

    Notes: New: C. accipiter Moncada, Madriñán & Lücking (from Colombia, Venezuela), C. applanata Moncada, Soto-Medina & Lücking (from Colombia, Ecuador), C. arachnodavidea Moncada, Dal Forno & Lücking (from Colombia), C. arborescens Dal Forno, Chaves & Lücking (from Costa Rica), C. arcabucana Moncada, C.Rodríguez & Lücking (from Colombia), C. aturucoa Lücking, Moncada & C. Vargas (from Colombia), C. auriculeslia Moncada, Yánez-Ayabaca & Lücking (from Ecuador), C. barbifera Moncada, Patiño & Lücking (from Colombia), C. boleslia Lücking, E.Morales & Dal Forno (from Bolivia), C. caliginosa Holgado, Rivas Plata & Perlmutter (from Peru), C. campestris Dal Forno, Eliasaro & Spielmann (from Brazil), C. canari Nugra, Dal Forno & Lücking (from Ecuador), C. caraana Lücking, Martins & Lucheta (from Brazil), C. casasolana Moncada, R.-E.Pérez & Lücking (from Mexico), C. caucensis Moncada, M.Gut. & Lücking (from Colombia), C. celestinoa Moncada, Cabrera-Amaya & Lücking (from Colombia), C. comaltepeca Moncada, R.-E.Pérez & Herrera-Camp. (from Mexico), C. corani Lücking, E.Morales & Dal Forno (from Bolivia), C. corelleslia Moncada, A. Suárez-Corredor & Lücking (from Colombia), C. crispoleslia Moncada, J.Molina & Lücking (from Colombia), C. cuzcoensis Holgado, Rivas Plata & Perlmutter (from Peru), C. dalehana Moncada, Madriñán & Lücking (from Colombia), C. davibogotana Lücking, Moncada & Coca (from Colombia), C. davicrinita Moncada, Madriñán & Lücking (from Colombia), C. davidia Moncada, L.Vargas & Lücking (from Colombia, Ecuador), C. dewisanti Moncada, A.Suárez-Corredor & Lücking (from Colombia, Venezuela), C. dulcis Moncada, R.-E.Pérez & Lücking (from Mexico), C. elephas Lücking, Moncada & L.Vargas (from Colombia, Ecuador), C. fuscodavidiana Lücking, Moncada & L.Vargas (from Colombia), C. garagoa Simijaca, Moncada & Lücking (from Colombia), C. gigantea Lücking, Moncada & Coca (from Colombia), C. gomeziana Dal Forno, Chaves & Lücking (from Costa Rica), C. guajalitensis Lücking, Robayo & Dal Forno (from Ecuador), C. hafecesweorthensis Moncada, Lücking & R.Peláez (from Colombia), C. haledana Dal Forno, Chaves & Lücking (from Costa Rica), C. hawksworthiana Dal Forno, P.Nelson & Lücking (from Costa Rica, Colombia, Chile), C. hochesuordensis Lücking, E.Morales & Dal Forno (from Bolivia), C. hymenocarpa Lücking, Chaves & Lawrey (from Costa Rica), C. imi Lücking, Chaves & Lawrey (from Costa Rica), C. itabaiana Dal Forno, Aptroot & M.Cáceres (from Brazil), C. leslactuca Lücking, Moncada & R.Peláez (from Colombia), C. maxima Wilk, Dal Forno & Lücking (from Bolivia), C. minutula Lücking, Moncada & Yánez-Ayabaca (from Ecuador), C. palaeotropica Weerakoon, Aptroot & Lücking (from Sri Lanka), C. palustris Dal Forno, Chaves & Lücking (from Costa Rica), C. parabovei Dal Forno, Kukwa & Lücking (from Bolivia), C. paraciferrii Lücking, Moncada & J.E.Hern. (from Colombia, Venezuela), C. paraminor Dal Forno, Chaves & Lücking (from Costa Rica), C. pastorum Moncada, Patiño & Lücking (from Colombia), C. pichinchensis Paredes, Jonitz & Dal Forno (from Ecuador), C. pikynasa J.-M.Torres, Moncada & Lücking (from Ecuador), C. pseudobovei Wilk, Dal Forno & Lücking (from Bolivia), C. pseudocorani Lücking, E.Morales & Dal Forno (from Bolivia), C. putumayensis L.J.Arias, Moncada & Lücking (from Colombia), C. quillacinga Moncada, F.Ortega & Lücking (from Colombia), C. rothesiorum Moncada, Madriñán & Lücking (from Colombia), C. rubrosanguinea Nugra, Moncada & Lücking (from Ecuador), C. santacruzensis Dal Forno, Bungartz & Yánez-Ayabaca (from Ecuador), C. schizophylloides Moncada, C.Rodríguez & Lücking (from Colombia), C. smaragdina Lücking, Rivas Plata & Chaves (from Costa Rica), C. soredavidia Dal Forno, Marcelli & Lücking (from Brazil, Costa Rica), C. subdavicrinita Moncada, J.Molina & Lücking (from Colombia), C. suturifera Nugra, Besal & Lücking (from Ecuador), C. terrestris Dal Forno, Chaves & Lücking (from Costa Rica), C. terricoleslia Wilk, Dal Forno & Lücking (from Bolivia), C. udebeceana Moncada, R.Peláez & Lücking (from Colombia), C. urceolata Moncada, Coca & Lücking (from Colombia), C. verjonensis Lücking, Moncada & Dal Forno (from Colombia), C. viliewoa Lücking, Chaves & Soto-Medina (from Costa Rica, Colombia, Ecuador), C. yukiboa Mercado-Díaz, Moncada & Lücking (from Puerto Rico).
    URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs13225-016-0374-9
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  • Lücking, R./ Kaminsky, L./ Perlmutter, G.B./ Lawrey, J.D./ Dal Forno, M. 2020: Cora timucua (Hygrophoraceae), a new and potentially extinct, previously misidentified basidiolichen of Florida inland scrub documented from historical collections. - The Bryologist 123(4): 657-673. [RLL List # 264 / Rec.# 42664]
    Abstract: The known collections of the genus Cora in continental North America north of Mexico, all restricted to Florida, are shown to belong to a single species, representing a previously unrecognized taxon formally described herein as C. timucua. Based on data of the fungal ITS barcoding marker, obtained through Sanger and Illumina sequencing from two historical collections, the new species is phylogenetically most closely related to C. casanarensis from Colombia and C. itabaiana from Brazil, although it is morphologically most similar to the only distantly related C. hymenocarpa from Costa Rica. Based on data from the Consortium of North American Lichen Herbaria (CNALH) and from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), most of the collections of C. timucua originate from around the turn of the 19th century, while a few were made in the second half of the 20th century, all between 1968 and 1985. Almost all collections originate from Florida sand pine scrub, apparently the preferred habitat of this taxon. Neither modern collections nor extant localities are known. Based on these findings and the substantial degree of land use change in Florida in the past decades, we assessed the conservation status of C. timucua using the IUCN Red List criteria and found that it should be classified as critically endangered (CR), in line with the status of another Florida endemic, Cladonia perforata, which was the first federally red-listed lichen in the United States. The most likely location where C. timucua may still be extant is Ocala National Forest in the north-central portion of the Florida peninsula, although recent macrolichen surveys in that area did not encounter this species.
    – doi:10.1639/0007-2745-123.4.657

    Countries/Continents: U.S.A./North America
    Notes: New: Cora timucua Dal Forno, Kaminsky & Lücking (from U.S.A.).
    URL: https://bioone.org/journals/the-bryologist/volume-123/issue-4/0007-2745-123.4.657/Cora-timucua-Hygrophoraceae-a-new-and-potentially-extinct-previously-misidentified/10.1639/0007-2745-123.4.657.full
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  • Lumbsch, H. T./ T. Ahti/ S. Altermann/ G. Amo De Paz/ A. Aptroot/ U. Arup/ A. Bárcenas Peña/ P. A. Bawingan/ M. N. Benatti/ L. Betancourt/ C. R. Björk/ K. Boonpragob/ M. Brand/ F. Bungartz/ M. E. S. Cáceres/ M. Candan/ J. L. Chaves/ P. Clerc/ R. Common/ B. J. Coppins/ A. Crespo/ M. Dal-Forno/ P. K. Divakar/ M. V. Duya/ J. A. Elix/ A. Elvebakk/ J. D. Fankhauser/ E. Farkas/ L. Itatí Ferraro/ E. Fischer/ D. J. Galloway/ E. Gaya/ M. Giralt/ T. Goward/ M. Grube/ J. Hafellner/ J. E. Hernández M./ M. A. Herrera Campos/ K. Kalb/ I. Kärnefelt/ G. Kantvilas/ D. Killmann/ P. Kirika/ K. Knudsen/ H. Komposch/ S. Kondratyuk/ J. D. Lawrey/ A. Mangold/ M. P. Marcelli/ B. McCune/ M. I. Messuti/ A. Michlig/ R. Miranda González/ B. Moncada/ A. Naikatini/ M. P. Nelsen/ D. O. Øvstedal/ Z. Palice/ K. Papong/ S. Parnmen/ S. Pérez-Ortega/ C. Printzen/ V. J. Rico/ E. Rivas Plata/ J. Robayo/ D. Rosabal/ U. Ruprecht/ N. Salazar Allen/ L. Sancho/ L. Santos De Jesus/ T. Santos Vieira/ M. Schultz/ M. R. D. Seaward/ E. Sérusiaux/ I. Schmitt/ H. J. M. Sipman/ M. Sohrabi/ U. Søchting/ M. Z. Søgaard/ L. B. Sparrius/ A. Spielmann/ T. Spribille/ J. Sutjaritturakan/ A. Thammathaworn/ A. Thell/ G. Thor/ H. Thüs/ E. Timdal/ C. Truong/ R. Türk/ L. Umaña Tenorio/ D. K. Upreti/ P. van den Boom/ M. Vivas Rebuelta/ M. Wedin/ S. Will-Wolf/ V. Wirth/ N. Wirtz/ R. Yahr/ K. Yeshitela/ F. Ziemmeck/ T. Wheeler/ R. Lücking 2011: One hundred new species of lichenized fungi: a signature of undiscovered global diversity. - Phytotaxa 18: 1-127. [RLL List # 224 / Rec.# 33279]
    Notes: New species: Acarospora flavisparsa V.J.Rico & Candan, Acarospora janae K. Knudsen, Aderkomyces thailandicus Papong, Boonpragob & Lücking, Amandinea maritima Giralt, van den Boom & Elix, Ampliotrema cocosense Lücking & Chaves, Anomomorpha lecanorina Sipman, Anomomorpha tuberculata Lücking, Umaña & Will-Wolf, Aspicilia mansourii Sohrabi, Bacidina sorediata Seaward & Lücking, Badimia multiseptata Papong & Lücking, Badimia vezdana Lücking, Farkas & Wirth, Biatora epirotica Printzen & T.Sprib., Buellia sulphurica Bungartz & Aptroot, Bunodophoron pinnatum Wedin, Byssoloma spinulosum Sérus., Calopadia cinereopruinosa Bungartz & Lücking, Calopadia editae Vĕzda ex Chaves & Lücking, Caloplaca brownlieae S.Y.Kondr., Elix & Kärnefelt, Caloplaca decipioides Arup, Caloplaca digitaurea Søgaard, Søchting & Sancho, Caloplaca magnussoniana S.Y.Kondr., Kärnefelt & A.Thell, Caloplaca mereschkowskiana S.Y.Kondr. & Kärnefelt, Caloplaca yorkensis S.Y.Kondr. & Kärnefelt, Calvitimela uniseptata G.Thor, Chapsa microspora Kalb, Chapsa psoromica M.Cáceres, Santos de Jesus & Santos Vieira, Chapsa rubropulveracea Hale ex Mangold, Lücking & Lumbsch, Chapsa thallotrema Lücking & N.Salazar, Chiodecton pustuliferum Aptroot, Cladonia mongkolsukii Parnmen & Ahti, Clypeopyrenis porinoides Komposch, J.E.Hern. & Rosabal, Coccocarpia delicatula Bungartz, Ziemmeck & Lücking, Coenogonium flammeum L.I.Ferraro, Michlig & Lücking, Cresponea ancistrosporelloides Sparrius & Sipman, Crocynia microphyllina Aptroot, Dictyonema hernandezii Lücking, Lawrey & Dal-Forno, Dictyonema hirsutum Moncada & Lücking, Diorygma microsporum M.Cáceres & Lücking, Diorygma sticticum Sutjaritturakan, Kalb & Lücking, Echinoplaca pernambucensis Øvstedal & Elix, Echinoplaca schizidiifera J.E.Hern. & Lücking, Eremithallus marusae R.Miranda, Gaya & Lücking, Everniastrum constictovexans Sipman, Fellhanera borbonica Sérus., van den Boom & Brand, Fibrillithecis sprucei Mangold, Lücking & Lumbsch, Fissurina astroisidiata Herrera-Campos & Lücking, Fissurina nigrolabiata Rivas Plata, Bawingan & Lücking, Fissurina subcomparimuralis Common & Lücking, Graphis caribica Lücking, Graphis cerradensis Marcelli, Benatti & Lücking, Graphis itatiaiensis Nelsen, Lücking & Spielmann, Graphis marusae B.Peña & Lücking, Gyalideopsis chicaque Moncada & Lücking, Gyrotrema papillatum Lücking, Harpidium gavilaniae Amo, Pérez-Ortega & A. Crespo, Hypogymnia amplexa Goward, Björk & Wheeler, Hypotrachyna guatemalensis Elix & van den Boom, Hypotrachyna indica Divakar, Lumbsch, Upreti & A.Crespo, Hypotrachyna lueckingii Sipman, Hypotrachyna paracitrella Sipman & Palice, Hypotrachyna paraphyscioides Sipman, Hypotrachyna parasinuosa Sipman & Palice, Icmadophila eucalypti Kantvilas, Krogia microphylla Timdal, Lecanora mugaii Kirika, I.Schmitt, Fankhauser & Lumbsch, Lecanora printzenii Pérez-Ortega, Vivas & Hafellner, Lecanora xanthoplumosella Lumbsch & Elix, Lecidea lygommella Elix, Lecidella greenii U.Ruprecht & Türk, Lempholemma corticola M.Schultz & T.Sprib., Lepraria sekikaica Elix, Lobariella sipmanii Moncada, Betancourt & Lücking, Megalospora austropacifica Lumbsch, Naikatini & Lücking, Megalospora galapagoensis Bungartz, Ziemmeck & Lücking, Menegazzia endocrocea Kantvilas, Myriotrema endoflavescens Hale ex Lücking, Ocellularia albobullata Lücking, Sipman & Grube, Ocellularia vizcayensis Rivas Plata, Duya & Lücking, Ochrolechia insularis Kantvilas & Elix, Opegrapha viridipruinosa B.J.Coppins & R.Yahr, Pannaria phyllidiata Elvebakk, Parmelia asiatica A.Crespo & Divakar, Pertusaria conspersa Messuti, Phlyctis psoromica Elix & Kantvilas, Placopsis imshaugii D.J.Galloway, Platismatia wheeleri Goward, Altermann & Björk, Porina huainamdungensis Papong, Thammathaworn & Lücking, Ramalina hyrcana Sipman, Ramalina stoffersii Sipman, Relicina coloiana Elix & Sipman, Rhizocarpon diploschistidina McCune, Sagenidiopsis isidiata G.Thor, Elix, Lücking & Sipman, Sticta venosa Lücking, Moncada & Robayo, Tapellaria albomarginata Lücking, Thelotrema fijiense Lumbsch, Lücking & Naikatini, Tricharia nigriuncinata Yeshitela, Eb.Fischer, Killmann & Sérus., Usnea galapagona Truong & P.Clerc, Usnea pallidocarpa Wirtz & Lumbsch, Verrucaria rhizicola Aptroot & Thüs, and Xanthomendoza rosmarieae S.Y.Kondr. & Kärnefelt; new combinations: Fibrillithecis dehiscens (Leight.) Mangold, Lücking & Lumbsch, Lobariella botryoides (Yoshim. & Arv.) Moncada & Lücking, and Lobariella pallida (Hook.f.) Moncada & Lücking.
    URL: http://www.mapress.com/phytotaxa/content/2011/f/pt00018p127.pdf
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  • Lücking, R./ Dal-Forno, M./ Sikaroodi, M./ Gillevet, P.M./ Bungartz, F./ Moncada, B./ Yánez-Ayabaca, A./ Chaves, J.L./ Coca, L.F./ Lawrey, J.D. 2014: A single macrolichen constitutes hundreds of unrecognized species. - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U.S.A. 111(3): 11091–11096. [RLL List # 240 / Rec.# 36435]
    Keywords: diversification/ global diversity prediction/ Hygrophoraceae
    Abstract: Macrolichens are considered to be well known, including the tropical montane basidiolichen fungus Dictyonema glabratum, also known as Cora pavonia, an important component of threatened paramo ecosystems, where it acts as a biological fertilizer due to its ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen. This lichen was long believed to represent a single species, but after revising this number to 16 in two genera (Cora and Corella), here we show that at least 126 phylogenetically and morphologically distinct species are contained within this group, with statistical analysis predicting more than 400. Our findings underline the importance of accurately documenting species richness for conservation purposes and support the notion of neotropical paramos as hotspots of recent diversification in plants, animals, and fungi.
    – doi:10.1073/pnas.1403517111

    Genera/Families: Hygrophoraceae/Cora/Dictyonema
    Notes: Analysis of ITS sequence of specimens identified as Dictyonema glabratum or Cora pavonia suggests the species as currently circumscribed comprises hundreds of species.
    URL: http://www.pnas.org/content/111/30/11091#aff-3
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  • Lücking, R./ Dal-Forno, M./ Wilk, K./ Lawrey, J.D. 2013: Three new species of Dictyonema (lichenized Basidiomycota: Hygrophoraceae) from Bolivia. - Acta Nova: Revista de Ciencias y Technología de Universidad Católica Boliviana 6(1-2): 4-16. [RLL List # 240 / Rec.# 36436]
    Keywords: Cora/ ITS barcoding gene/ species delimitation
    Abstract: Based on molecular phylogenetic studies and morphological revision, three new species of Dictyonema are described from Bolivia. Dictyonema applanatum Lücking, Dal-Forno & Wilk is characterized by an appressed filamentous thallus in which the fibrils are completely horizontally oriented and partially embedded in a gelatinous matrix formed by the thick generative hyphae of the mycobiont. Dictyonema hapteriferum Lücking, Dal-Forno & Wilk, also known from Peru, is a shelf-like species similar in growth to D. sericeum and characterized by loosely horizontally arranged fibrils and small hymenophores on the underside that resemble hapteres found in some lichens. Dictyonema discocarpum Lücking, Dal-Forno & Wilk also resembles D. sericeum in the shelf-like growth and produces more or less disc-shaped hymenophores with crisp margins.
    Genera/Families: Hygrophoraceae/Dictyonema
    Countries/Continents: South America/Bolivia
    Notes: New: Dictyonema applanatum Lücking, Dal-Forno & Wilk, D. discocarpum Lücking, Dal-Forno & Wilk, D. hapteriferum Lücking, Dal-Forno & Wilk
    URL: http://www.revistasbolivianas.org.bo/scielo.php?pid=S1683-07892013000100002&script=sci_arttext
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  • Lücking, R./ Lawrey, J.D./ Gillevet, P.M./ Sikaroodi, M./ Dal-Forno, M./ Berger, S.A. 2014: Multiple ITS Haplotypes in the Genome of the Lichenized Basidiomycete Cora inversa (Hygrophoraceae): Fact or Artifact?. - Journal of Molecular Evolution 78(2): 148-162. [RLL List # 240 / Rec.# 36434]
    Keywords: Basidiomycota/ Dictyonema/ Environmental sequencing/ Next-generation sequencing
    Abstract: The internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of the nuclear rDNA cistron represents the barcoding locus for Fungi. Intragenomic variation of this multicopy gene can interfere with accurate phylogenetic reconstruction of biological entities. We investigated the amount and nature of this variation for the lichenized fungus Cora inversa in the Hygrophoraceae (Basidiomycota: Agaricales), analyzing base call and length variation in ITS1 454 pyrosequencing data of three samples of the target mycobiont, for a total of 16,665 reads obtained from three separate repeats of the same samples under different conditions. Using multiple fixed alignment methods (PaPaRa) and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis (RAxML), we assessed phylogenetic relationships of the obtained reads, together with Sanger ITS sequences from the same samples. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all ITS1 reads belonged to a single species, C. inversa. Pyrosequencing data showed 266 insertion sites in addition to the 325 sites expected from Sanger sequences, for a total of 15,654 insertions (0.94 insertions per read). An additional 3,279 substitutions relative to the Sanger sequences were detected in the dataset, out of 5,461,125 bases to be called. Up to 99.3 % of the observed indels in the dataset could be interpreted as 454 pyrosequencing errors, approximately 65 % corresponding to incorrectly recovered homopolymer segments, and 35 % to carry-forward-incomplete-extension errors. Comparison of automated clustering and alignment-based phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that clustering of these reads produced a 35-fold overestimation of biological diversity in the dataset at the 95 % similarity threshold level, whereas phylogenetic analysis using a maximum likelihood approach accurately recovered a single biological entity. We conclude that variation detected in 454 pyrosequencing data must be interpreted with great care and that a combination of a sufficiently large number of reads per taxon, a set of Sanger references for the same taxon, and at least two runs under different emulsion PCR and sequencing conditions, are necessary to reliably separate biological variation from 454 sequencing errors. Our study shows that clustering methods are highly sensitive to artifactual sequence variation and inadequate to properly recover biological diversity in a dataset, if sequencing errors are substantial and not removed prior to clustering analysis.
    – doi:10.1007/s00239-013-9603-y

    Genera/Families: Hygrophoraceae/Cora
    Notes: "Comparison of automated clustering and alignment-based phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that clustering of these reads produced a 35-fold overestimation of biological diversity in the dataset at the 95 % similarity threshold level, whereas phylogenetic analysis using a maximum likelihood approach accurately recovered a single biological entity. We conclude that variation detected in 454 pyrosequencing data must be interpreted with great care and that a combination of a sufficiently large number of reads per taxon, a set of Sanger references for the same taxon, and at least two runs under different emulsion PCR and sequencing conditions, are necessary to reliably separate biological variation from 454 sequencing errors. Our study shows that clustering methods are highly sensitive to artifactual sequence variation and inadequate to properly recover biological diversity in a dataset, if sequencing errors are substantial and not removed prior to clustering analysis."
    URL: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00239-013-9603-y
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  • Lücking, R./ M. Dal-Forno/ J. D. Lawrey/ F. Bungartz/ M. E. H. Rojas/ J. E. Hernandez/ M. P. Marcelli/ B. Moncada/ E. A. Morales/ M. P. Nelsen/ E. Paz/ L. Salcedo/ A. A. Spielmann/ K. Wilk/ S. Will-Wolf/ A. Yanez-Ayabaca 2013: Ten new species of lichenized Basidiomycota in the genera Dictyonema and Cora. - Phytotaxa 139(1): 1-38. [RLL List # 240 / Rec.# 36303]
    Abstract: As part of a larger systematic and taxonomic revision, including molecular phylogenetic analysis, of lichenized Basidiomycota in the Dictyonema clade, ten species are described as new from tropical America, seven in the foliose genus Cora and three in the filamentous genus Dictyonema: Cora arachnoidea J. E. Hern. & Lücking, sp. nov., C. asperaWilk, Lücking & E. Morales, sp. nov., C. byssoidea Lücking & Moncada, sp. nov., C. cyphellifera Dal-Forno, Bungartz & Lücking, sp. nov., C. inversa Lücking & Moncada, sp. nov., C. squamiformis Wilk, Lücking & Yánez-Ayabaca, sp. nov., C. strigosa Lücking, E. Paz & L. Salcedo, sp. nov., Dictyonema aeruginosulum Lücking, Nelsen & Will-Wolf, sp. nov., D. diducens Nyl. ex Lücking, sp. nov., D. metallicum Lücking, Dal-Forno & Lawrey, sp. nov., and D. obscuratumLücking, Spielmann & Marcelli, sp. nov. We discuss the taxonomic status of the six names historically established for species belonging in the genus Cora and reinstate the names C. gyrolophia Fr., C. pavonia (Sw.) Fr., and C. reticuliferaVain., providing diagnostic features for these, whereas the status of C. glabrata (Spreng.) Fr. and C. bovei Speg. remains uncertain. The following new combinations are introduced: Cora hirsuta (Moncada & Lücking) Moncada & Lücking, comb. nov., C. minor (Lücking, E. Navarro & Sipman) Lücking, comb. nov., Corella melvinii (Chaves, Lücking & Umaña) Lücking, Dal-Forno & Lawrey, comb. nov., Cyphellostereum phyllogenum (Müll. Arg.) Lücking, Dal-Forno & Lawrey, comb. nov., Dictyonema caespitosum (Johow) Lücking, comb. nov., D. irrigatum (Berk. & M. A. Curtis) Lücking, comb. nov., D. phyllophilum (Parmasto) Lücking, Dal-Forno & Lawrey, comb. et stat. nov., and D. scabridum(Vain.) Lückng, comb. et stat. nov. Keys are presented to the five currently accepted genera and 40 currently recognized species in the genera Cyphellostereum, Dictyonema, Cora, and Corella.
    Notes: New species: Cora arachnoidea J. E. Hern. & Lücking, Cora aspera Wilk, Lücking & E. Morales, Cora byssoidea Lücking & Moncada, Cora cyphellifera Dal-Forno, Bungartz & Lücking, Cora inversa Lücking & Moncada, Cora squamiformis Wilk, Lücking & Yánez-Ayabaca, Cora strigosa Lücking, E. Paz & L. Salcedo, Dictyonema aeruginosulum Lücking, Nelsen & Will-Wolf, Dictyonema diducens Nyl. ex Lücking, Dictyonema metallicum Lücking, Dal-Forno & Lawrey, and Dictyonema obscuratum Lücking, Spielmann & Marcelli.
    URL: http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Adriano_Spielmann2/publication/258273280_Ten_new_species_of_lichenized_Basidiomycota_in_the_genera_Dictyonema_and_Cora_(Agaricales_Hygrophoraceae)_with_a_key_to_all_accepted_genera_and_species_in_the_Dictyonema_clade/links/02e7e527a799c17139000000.pdf
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  • Molina, M. C./ DePriest, P. T./ Lawrey, J. D. 2005: Genetic variation in the widespread lichenicolous fungus Marchandiomyces corallinus. - Mycologia 97(2): 454-463. [RLL List # 202 / Rec.# 28286]
    Keywords: MARCHANDIOMYCES/ LICHENICOLOUS/ GENETIC VARIATION/ BASIDIOMYCETES/ HOST-PARASITE EVOLUTION/ RDNA SEUQUNCES/ MOLECULAR ANALYSIS
    Abstract: [Authors used PCR amplification products including RAPD and nuITS rDNA. "A number of distinct compatibility groups were recognizable based on geography, not host ecology. This type of genetic variation in these fungi suggests that sexual recombination is possible and that genetic differentiation has taken place recently as a result of geographic isolation, not host switching."
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  • P. Diederich and J. D. Lawrey 2007: New lichenicolous, muscicolous, corticolous and lignicolous taxa of Burgoa s. l. and Marchandiomyces s. l. (anamorphic Basidiomycota), a new genus for Omphalina foliacea, and a catalogue and a key to the non-lichenized, bulbilliferous basidiomycetes. - Mycological Progress 6: 61-80. [RLL List # 208 / Rec.# 29482]
    Keywords: BULBILLIFEROUS FUNGI/ BULBILS/ MARCHANDIOMYCES/ SISTOTREMA/ BURGOA/ NEW TAXA/ KEY/ CANTHARELLALES/ MINIMEDUSA/ MARCHANDIOMPHALINA/ BURGELLA
    Abstract: [New: Burgella gen. nov., B. flavoparmeliae sp. nov. (Missouri, Oklahoma, North Carolina), Burgoa angulosa Diederich, Lawrey & Etayo sp. nov. (Spain and other European localities), B. moriformis Diederich, Ertz & Coppins sp. nov. (Ireland), B. splendens Diederich & Coppins sp. nov. (Great Britain), Marchandiomyces buckii sp. nov. (North Carolina, Missouri), M. nothofagicola sp. nov. (Chile), Minimedusa pubescens Diederich, Lawrey & Heylen sp. nov. (Belgium, Luxembourg), M. obcoronata (B. Sutton, Kuthub. & Muid) comb. nov., Marchandiomphalina Diederich, Binder & Lawrey gen. nov., M. foliacea (P. M. Jørg.) Diederich, Binder & Lawrey comb. nov. Notes on many other taxa are given, including a lengthy key.]
    – 10.1007/s11557-007-0523-3

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  • R. Lücking, J. D. Lawrey, M. Sikaroodi, P. M. Gillevet, J. L. Chaves, H. J. M. Sipman and F. Bungartz 2009: Do lichens domesticate photobionts like farmers domesticate crops? Evidence from a previously unrecognized lineage of filamentous cyanobacteria. - American Journal of Botany 96(8): 1409-1418. [RLL List # 216 / Rec.# 31181]
    Keywords: CYANOBACTERIA/ NOSTOC/ SCYTONEMA/ CHROOCOCCUS/ DICTYONEMA/ ACANTHOLICHEN/ COCCOCARPIA/ STEREOCAULON/ MOLECULAR PHYLOGENETICS/ RDNA SEQUENCES
    Abstract: [Phylogenetic analysis using rDNA sequences of Scytonema and related filamentous and unicellular morphotypes from neotropical Dictyonema, Acantholichen, Coccocarpia and Stereocaulon lichen taxa. This photobiont clade " ... do not cluster with Scytonema but represents a novel, previously unrecognized, highly diverse, exclusively lichenized lineage, for which the name Rhizonema is available." These photobionts appear to have " ... evolved through photobiont sharing between unrelated, but ecologically similar, coexisting lineages of lichenized fungi ... via the selection of particular photobiont strains through and subsequent [to] horizontal transfer among mycobionts, a phenomenon not unlike crop domestication."]
    – 10.3732/ajb.0800258

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  • Rossman, A.Y./ Crous, P.W./ Hyde, K.D./ Hawksworth, D.L./ Aptroot, A./ Bezerra, J.L./ Bhat, J.D./ Boehm, E./ Braun, U./ Boonmee, S./ Camporesi, E./ Chomnunti, P./ Dai, D.-Q./ D'souza, M.J./ Dissanayake, A./ Jones, E.B.G./ Groenewald, J.Z./ Hernández-Restrepo, M./ Hongsanan, S./ Jaklitsch, W.M./ Jayawardena, R./ Jing, L.W./ Kirk, P.M./ Lawrey, J.D./ Mapook, A./ McKenzie, E.H.C./ Monkai, J./ Phillips, A.J.L./ Phookamsak, R./ Raja, H.A./ Seifert, K.A./ Senanayake, I./ Slippers, B./ Suetrong, S./ Tanaka, K./ Taylor, J.E./ Thambugala, K.M./ Tian, Q./ Tibpromma, S./ Wanasinghe, D.N./ Wijayawardene, N.N./ Wikee, S./ Woudenberg, J.H.C./ Wu, H.-X./ Yan, J./ Yang, T./ Zhang, Y. 2015: Recommended names for pleomorphic genera in Dothideomycetes. - IMA Fungus 6(2): 507-523. [RLL List # 242 / Rec.# 37419]
    Keywords: FUNGAL SYSTEMATICS/ GENERA OF FUNGI/ ONE FUNGUS ONE NAME/ PLEOMORPHISM/ Nomenclature
    Abstract: This paper provides recommendations of one name for use among pleomorphic genera in Dothideomycetes by the Working Group on Dothideomycetes established under the auspices of the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF). A number of these generic names are proposed for protection because they do not have priority and/or the generic name selected for use is asexually typified. These include: Acrogenospora over Farlowiella; Alternaria over Allewia, Lewia, and Crivellia; Botryosphaeria over Fusicoccum; Camarosporula over Anthracostroma; Capnodium over Polychaeton; Cladosporium over Davidiella; Corynespora over Corynesporasca; Curvularia over Pseudocochliobolus; Elsinoë over Sphaceloma; Excipulariopsis over Kentingia; Exosporiella over Anomalemma; Exserohilum over Setosphaeria; Gemmamyces over Megaloseptoria; Kellermania over Planistromella; Kirschsteiniothelia over Dendryphiopsis; Lecanosticta over Eruptio; Paranectriella over Araneomyces; Phaeosphaeria over Phaeoseptoria; Phyllosticta over Guignardia; Podonectria over Tetracrium; Polythrincium over Cymadothea; Prosthemium over Pleomassaria; Ramularia over Mycosphaerella; Sphaerellopsis over Eudarluca; Sphaeropsis over Phaeobotryosphaeria; Stemphylium over Pleospora; Teratosphaeria over Kirramyces and Colletogloeopsis; Tetraploa over Tetraplosphaeria; Venturia over Fusicladium and Pollaccia; and Zeloasperisporium over Neomicrothyrium. Twenty new combinations are made: Acrogenospora carmichaeliana (Berk.) Rossman & Crous, Alternaria scrophulariae (Desm.) Rossman & Crous, Pyrenophora catenaria (Drechsler) Rossman & K.D. Hyde, P. dematioidea (Bubák & Wróbl.) Rossman & K.D. Hyde, P. fugax (Wallr.) Rossman & K.D. Hyde, P. nobleae (McKenzie & D. Matthews) Rossman & K.D. Hyde, P. triseptata (Drechsler) Rossman & K.D. Hyde, Schizothyrium cryptogamum (Batzer & Crous) Crous & Batzer, S. cylindricum (G.Y. Sun et al. ) Crous & Batzer, S. emperorae (G.Y. Sun & L. Gao) Crous & Batzer, S. inaequale (G.Y. Sun & L. Gao) Crous & Batzer, S. musae (G.Y. Sun & L. Gao) Crous & Batzer, S. qianense (G.Y. Sun & Y.Q. Ma) Crous & Batzer, S. tardecrescens (Batzer & Crous) Crous & Batzer, S. wisconsinense (Batzer & Crous) Crous & Batzer, Teratosphaeria epicoccoides (Cooke & Massee) Rossman & W.C. Allen, Venturia catenospora (Butin) Rossman & Crous, V. convolvularum (Ondrej) Rossman & Crous, V. oleaginea (Castagne) Rossman & Crous, and V. phillyreae (Nicolas & Aggéry) Rossman & Crous, combs. nov. Three replacement names are also proposed: Pyrenophora grahamii Rossman & K.D. Hyde, Schizothyrium sunii Crous & Batzer, and Venturia barriae Rossman & Crous noms. nov.
    – doi:10.5598/imafungus.2015.06.02.14

    URL: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/ima/imafung/2015/00000006/00000002/art00027
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  • Schmull, M./ Dal-Forno, M./ Lücking, R./ Cao, S./ Clardy, S./ Clardy, J./ Lawrey, J.D. 2014: Dictyonema huaorani (Agaricales: Hygrophoraceae), a new lichenized basidiomycete from Amazonian Ecuador with presumed hallucinogenic properties. - The Bryologist 117(4): 386-394. [RLL List # 240 / Rec.# 36426]
    Keywords: Basidiolichens/ Huaorani/ nɇnɇndapɇ/ taxonomy
    Abstract: Dictyonema huaorani, a new species represented by a well-developed specimen found in the Ecuadorian Amazon region, is described in this paper. The material was collected during a Harvard ethnobotanical expedition in 1981 and originally determined by Mason E. Hale Jr. as belonging in the genus Dictyonema (D. sericeum s.lat.) and possibly representing an undescribed species. The species is morphologically distinctive in forming densely woven, semicircular thalli, closely resembling those of the paleotropical D. ligulatum but lacking clamps and with hyphal sheath around the photobiont filaments that resembles those of Cyphellostereum species. The species was reported to have hallucinogenic properties and chemical analyses suggest certain substances present that are shared with the hallucinogenic mushroom Psilocybe cubensis. Due to our inability to use pure reference compounds and scarce amount of sample for compound identification, however, our analyses were not able to determine conclusively the presence of hallucinogenic substances.
    – doi:10.1639/0007-2745-117.4.386

    Genera/Families: Dictyonema/Hygrophoraceae
    Countries/Continents: South America/Ecuador
    Notes: New: Dictyonema huaorani Dal-Forno, Schmull, Lücking & Lawrey
    URL: http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1639/0007-2745-117.4.386
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  • Sikaroodi, M/ Lawrey, JD/ DePriest, PT 2000: Phylogenetic position of selected lichenicolous fungi, Hobsonia, Illosporium and Marchandiomyces. - In: : The Fourth IAL Symposium, Progress and Problems in Lichenology at the Turn of the Millennium. Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, pp. 102. [RLL List # 181 / Rec.# 21396]
    Keywords: HOBSONIA/ ILLOSPORIUM/ LICHENICOLOUS/ MARCHANDIOMYCES/ MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY
    Abstract: [Abstract from the International Association for Lichenology's fourth symposium, held in Barcelona, Spain, 3-8 September 2000.]
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  • Sikaroodi, M/ Lawrey, JD/ Hawksworth, DL/ DePriest, PT 2001: The phylogenetic position of selected lichenicolous fungi: Hobsonia, Illosporium, and Marchandiomyces. - Mycological Research 105(4): 453-460. [RLL List # 183 / Rec.# 21954]
    Keywords: HOBSONIA/ ILLOSPORIUM/ ITS/ LICHENICOLOUS/ MARCHANDIOMYCES/ MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY/ SSU RDNA
    Abstract: 1 fig. 3 tab. ["We examined the phylogenetic positions of species in these genera using complete sequences of the small subunit (SSU) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA (rDNA), and portions of the mitochondria (mt) SSU rDNA obtained from isolated cultures of freshly collected specimens." New: Hobsoniopsis D. Hawksw. gen. nov., H. santesonii (Lowen & D. Hawksw.) D. Hawksw. comb. nov., Illosporiopsis Hawksw. gen. nov., I. christiansenii (B. L. Brady & D. Hawksw.) D. Hawksw. comb. nov.]
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  • Slocum, RD/ Lawrey, JD 1976: Viability of the epizoic lichen flora carried and dispersed by green lacewing (Nodita pavida) larvae. - Canad. Jour. Bot. 54: 1827-1831. [RLL List # 95 / Rec.# 17542]
    Keywords: LACEWINGS/ DISPERSAL/ SOREDIA/ INSECTS/ INVERTEBRATES/ ECOLOGY
    Abstract: 9 figures.
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  • Suija, A./ D. Ertz/ J. D. Lawrey/ P. Diederich 2014: Multiple origin of the lichenicolous life habit in Helotiales, based on nuclear ribosomal sequences. - Fungal Diversity 70(1): 55-72. [RLL List # 238 / Rec.# 36026]
    Keywords: Convergence/ Diplolaeviopsis/ Geltingia/ Helotiales/ Llimoniella/ Pezizella/ Phaeopyxis/ rDNA/ Rhymbocarpus/ Skyttea/ Taxonomy/ Thamnogalla/ Unguiculariopsis/ Ascomycota/ Calycina/ Cordierites/ Encoelia/ Fungi/ Fungi imperfecti/ Helotiales/ Lecanoromycetes/ Ostropales/ Ranula/ Tetracladium/ Unguiculariopsis
    Abstract: The Helotiales are an ecologically and morphologically highly diverse group of ascomycetes that also includes lichen-inhabiting (lichenicolous) species. We generated sequence data of three rDNA regions (nuSSU, nuLSU, 5.8S of ITS) from 28 lichenicolous specimens representing nine genera in order to determine their phylogenetic placement. Based on the most complete dataset of helotialean fungi to date, the analyses were performed using Maximum Likelihood (ML) and Bayesian approaches. Our results suggest that 1) the lichen-inhabiting life-style in Helotiales was subjected to gains or losses at least three times; 2) Thamnogalla, previously tentatively included in Ostropales, is shown to belong to Helotiales; 3) ascomata found intermixed with pycnidia of the asexual Diplolaeviopsis ranula and possessing the same pigments are tentatively considered as the sexual morph of this taxon, and are shown to belong to Helotiales; 4) the lichenicolous species of cf. Diplolaeviopsis, Llimoniella, Rhymbocarpus, Skyttea, Thamnogalla and Unguiculariopsis form a well-supported clade together with non-lichenicolous encoelioid fungi from the genera Ionomidotis, Cordierites and Encoelia; 5) Geltingia associata forms a highly supported clade with the fungicolous asexual fungus Eleutheromyces subulatus, whereas Pezizella epithallina clusters with an aquatic asexual fungus Tetracladium sp.; 6) Phaeopyxis punctum belongs to Ostropomycetidae (Lecanoromycetes), but its deep relationships to other groups remain unresolved based on rDNA sequences.
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13225-014-0287-4
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  • Suija, A./ D. Ertz/ J. D. Lawrey/ P. Diederich 2014: Multiple origins of the lichenicolous life habit in Helotiales, based on nuclear ribosomal sequences. - Fungal Diversity : 10.1007/s13225-014-0287-4. [RLL List # 237 / Rec.# 35863]
    URL:
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  • Torzilli, AP/ Balakrishna, S/ O'Donnell, K/ Lawrey, JD 2002: The degradative activity of a lichenicolous Fusarium sp. compared to related entomogenous species. - Mycological Research 106(10): 1204-1210. [RLL List # 190 / Rec.# 23980]
    Keywords: BIODEGRADATION/ CHEMISTRY ROLE/ FUSARIUM/ LECANORIC/ LICHENICOLOUS/ MOLECULAR BIOLOGY/ MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY/ SECONDARY COMPOUNDS/ THALLUS
    Abstract: 2 fig. 3 tab. ["The lichenicolous Fusarium sp. and three entomogenous species were tested for the ability to degrade lichen tissue in both the presence and the absence of antibiotic secondary compounds. Only the undescribed lichenicolous Fusarium sp. showed degradative ability irrespective of lichen secondary chemistry and this was correlated with its ability to hydrolyse enzymatically the antibiotic depside, lecanoric acid."]
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  • Torzilli, AP/ Lawrey, JD 1995: Lichen metabolites inhibit cell wall-degrading enzymes produced by the lichen parasite Nectria parmeliae. - Mycologia 87(6): 841-845. [RLL List # 161 / Rec.# 18869]
    Keywords: ALLELOCHEMICALS/ CELL WALLS/ FLAVOPARMELIA/ HOST-PARASITE INTERACTIONS/ LICHEN PARASITES/ LICHENICOLOUS/ NECTRIA/ PUNCTELIA
    Abstract: 2 fig. ["We report results of laboratory experiments showing that the cell wall-degrading enzymes of the lichen parasite Nectria parmeliae exhibit sensitivities to the lichen metabolites of two lichens, Punctelia rudecta and Flavoparmelia baltimorensis, that reflect known differences in the parasite's ability to degrade these lichens."]
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  • Torzilli, AP/ Mikelson, PA/ Lawrey, JD 1999: Physiological effect of lichen secondary metabolites on the lichen parasite Marchandiomyces corallinus. - Lichenologist 31(3): 307-314. [RLL List # 175 / Rec.# 18870]
    Keywords: CHEMICAL DEFENSE/ CHEMISTRY ROLE/ HOST PREFERENCES/ HOST-PARASITE INTERACTIONS/ LICHENICOLOUS
    Abstract: 4 fig.
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  • Whiton, JC/ Lawrey, JD 1982: Inhibition of Cladonia cristatella and Sordaria fimicola ascospore germination by lichen acids. - The Bryologist 85: 222-226. [RLL List # 115-91 / Rec.# 20253]
    Keywords: CLADONIA/ SPORE GERMINATION/ INHIBITION/ CHEMISTRY/ ALLELOPATHY/ SORDARIA/ EVERNIC/ STICTIC/ VULPINIC
    Abstract: 1 table. [Ascospore germination was tested using evernic, stictic and vulpinic acids at various pH levels. Inhibitory effects were much more pronounced in Sordaria than Cladonia ascospores. "Lichen acids appear to be capable of functioning as allelopathic agents in nature; however, lichenized fungi may be better able to tolerate the inhibitory effects of lichen acids than nonlichenized fungi."]
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  • Whiton, JC/ Lawrey, JD 1984: Inhibition of crustose lichen spore germination by lichen acids. - The Bryologist 87: 42-43. [RLL List # 121-96 / Rec.# 20254]
    Keywords: GERMINATION/ SPORES/ ACIDS/ OWN/ CRUSTOSE/ GRAPHIS/ CALOPLACA
    Abstract: 1 table. [Germination of Graphis scripta and Caloplaca citrina spores was tested in the presence of atranorin, vulpinic, stictic, and evernic acids. Germination was inhibited in some cases and not in others. "These results, and those of previous studies, demonstrate the allelopathic potential of lichen compounds in biochemically diverse lichen communities."]
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  • Wijayawardene, N. N., P. W. Crous, P. M. Kirk, D. L. Hawksworth, S. Boonmee, U. Braun, D.-Q. Dai, M. J. D'souza, P. Diederich, A. Dissanayake, M. Doilom, S. Hongsanan, E. B. Gareth Jones, J. Z. Groenewald, R. Jayawardena, J. D. Lawrey, J.-K. Liu, R. Lücking, H. Madrid, D. S. Manamgoda, L. Muggia, M. P. Nelsen, R. Phookamsak, S. Suetrong, K. Tanaka, K. M. Thambugala, D. N. Wanasinghe, S. Wikee, Y. Zhang, A. Aptroot, H. A. Ariyawansa, A. H. Bahkali, J. D. Bhat, C. Gueidan, P. Chomnunti, G. S. De Hoog, K. Knudsen, W.-J. Li, E. H. C. McKenzie, A. N. Miller, P. E. Mortimer, A. J. L. Phillips, M. Pi¹tek, H. A. Raja, R. S. Shivas, B. Slippers, J. E. Taylor, Y. Wang, J. H. C. Woudenberg, L. Cai, W. M. Jaklitsch & K. D. Hyde 2014: Naming and outline of Dothideomycetes–2014 including proposals for the protection or suppression of generic names. - Fungal Diversity 69(1): 1-55. [RLL List # 237 / Rec.# 35864]
    URL:
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  • Wijayawardene, N.N./ Hyde, K.D./ Al-Ani, L.K.T./ Tedersoo, L./ Haelewaters, D./ Rajeshkumar, K.C./ Zhao, R.L./ Aptroot, A./ Leontyev, D.V./ Saxena, R.K./ Tokarev, Y.S./ Dai, D.Q./ Letcher, P.M./ Stephenson, S.L./ Ertz, D./ Lumbsch, H.T./ Kukwa, M./ Issi, I.V./ Madrid, H./ Phillips, A.J.L./ Selbmann, L./ Pfliegler, W.P./ Horváth, E./ Bensch, K./ Kirk, P.M./ Kolaříková, K./ Raja, H.A./ Radek, R./ Papp, V./ Dima, B./ Ma, J./ Malosso, E./ Takamatsu, S./ Rambold, G./ Gannibal, P.B./ Triebel, D./ Gautam, A.K./ Avasthi, S./ Suetrong, S./ Timdal, E./ Fryar, S.C./ Delgado, G./ Réblová, M./ Doilom, M./ Dolatabadi, S./ Pawłowska, J.Z./ Humber, R.A./ Kodsueb, R./ Sánchez-Castro, I./ Goto, B.T./ Silva, D.K.A./ de Souza, F.A./ Oehl, F./ da Silva, G.A./ Silva, I.R./ Błaszkowski, J./ Jobim, K./ Maia, L.C./ Barbosa, F.R./ Fiuza, P.O./ Divakar, P.K./ Shenoy, B.D./ Castañeda-Ruiz, R.F./ Somrithipol, S./ Lateef, A.A./ Karunarathna, S.C./ Tibpromma, S./ Mortimer, P.E./ Wanasinghe, D.N./ Phookamsak, R./ Xu, J./ Wang, Y./ Tian, F./ Alvarado, P./ Li, D.W./ Kušan, I./ Matočec, N./ Mešić, A./ Tkalčec, Z./ Maharachchikumbura, S.S.N./ Papizadeh, M./ Heredia, G./ Wartchow, F./ Bakhshi, M./ Boehm, E./ Youssef, N./ Hustad, V.P./ Lawrey, J.D./ Santiago, A.L.C.M.A./ Bezerra, J.D.P./ Souza-Motta, C.M./ Firmino, A.L./ Tian, Q./ Houbraken, J./ Hongsanan, S./ Tanaka, K./ Dissanayake, A.J./ Monteiro, J.S./ Grossart, H.P./ Suija, A./ Weerakoon, G./ Etayo, J./ Tsurykau, A./ Vázquez, V./ Mungai, P./ Damm, U./ Li, Q.R./ Zhang, H./ Boonmee, S./ Lu, Y.Z./ Becerra, A.G./ Kendrick, B./ Brearley, F.Q./ Motiejūnaitė, J./ Sharma, B./ Khare, R./ Gaikwad, S./ Wijesundara, D.S.A./ Tang, L.Z./ He, M.Q./ Flakus, A./ Rodriguez-Flakus, P./ Zhurbenko, M.P./ McKenzie, E.H.C./ Stadler, M./ Bhat, D.J./ Liu, J.K./ Raza, M./ Jeewon, R./ Nassonova, E.S./ Prieto, M./ Jayalal, R.G.U./ Erdoğdu, M./ Yurkov, A./ Schnittler, M./ Shchepin, O.N./ Novozhilov, YK./ Silva-Filho, A.G.S./ Gentekaki, E./ Liu, P./ Cavender, J.C./ Kang, Y./ Mohammad, S./ Zhang, L.F./ Xu, R.F./ Li, Y.M./ Dayarathne, M.C./ Ekanayaka, A.H./ Wen, T.C./ Deng, C.Y./ Pereira, O.L./ Navathe, S./ Hawksworth, D.L./ Fan, X.L./ Dissanayake, L.S./ Kuhnert, E./ Grossart, H.P./ Thines, M. 2020: Outline of fungi and fungus-like taxa. - Mycosphere 11(1): 1060–1456. [RLL List # 262 / Rec.# 42344]
    Abstract: This article provides an outline of the classification of the kingdom Fungi (including fossil fungi. i.e. dispersed spores, mycelia, sporophores, mycorrhizas). We treat 19 phyla of fungi. These are Aphelidiomycota, Ascomycota, Basidiobolomycota, Basidiomycota, Blastocladiomycota, Calcarisporiellomycota, Caulochytriomycota, Chytridiomycota, Entomophthoromycota, Entorrhizomycota, Glomeromycota, Kickxellomycota, Monoblepharomycota, Mortierellomycota, Mucoromycota, Neocallimastigomycota, Olpidiomycota, Rozellomycota and Zoopagomycota. The placement of all fungal genera is provided at the class-, order- and family-level. The described number of species per genus is also given. Notes are provided of taxa for which recent changes or disagreements have been presented. Fungus-like taxa that were traditionally treated as fungi are also incorporated in this outline (i.e. Eumycetozoa, Dictyosteliomycetes, Ceratiomyxomycetes and Myxomycetes). Four new taxa are introduced: Amblyosporida ord. nov. Neopereziida ord. nov. and Ovavesiculida ord. nov. in Rozellomycota, and Protosporangiaceae fam. nov. in Dictyosteliomycetes. Two different classifications (in outline section and in discussion) are provided for Glomeromycota and Leotiomycetes based on recent studies. The phylogenetic reconstruction of a four-gene dataset (18S and 28S rRNA, RPB1, RPB2) of 433 taxa is presented, including all currently described orders of fungi.
    – doi:10.5943/mycosphere/11/1/8

    URL: https://www.mycosphere.org/pdf/MYCOSPHERE_11_1_8-1.pdf
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  • Yánez, A./ M. Dal-Forno/ F. Bungartz/ R. Lücking/ J. D. Lawrey 2012: A first assessment of Galapagos basidiolichens. - Fungal Diversity 52: 225-244. [RLL List # 226 / Rec.# 33687]
    Keywords: Acantholichen/ Census of Galapagos Biodiversity/ Cora/ Cyphellostereum/ Dictyonema/ Galapagos Lichen Inventory
    Abstract: As part of an ongoing comprehensive inventory of Galapagos lichens, a first assessment of the morphology and anatomy of basidiolichens from the archipelago is presented here. It is the basis for further studies of the taxonomy, ecology and biogeography of this poorly known group of lichens. Four genera, all in Hygrophoraceae, can be distinguished: Acantholichen, Cora, Cyphellostereum and Dictyonema. Both Acantholichen and Cora are characterized by chroococcoid cyanobionts and a heteromerous thallus with a distinct upper cortex and photobiont layer. The monotypic Acantholichen pannarioides is entirely composed of small, branched, inflated squamules that appear densely pruinose because their cortical hyphae bear characteristically swollen, densely spinose end cells (acanthohyphidia); this species has never been observed fertile. The common Cora glabrata is foliose, forming large, radially zonate, conch-like, often tiled thalli, when fertile with circular lines of basidiocarps on its lower side. Dictyonema is distinguished by filamentous cyanobionts and distinctly filamentous thalli that are homomereous (i.e., not distinctly layered); all species of Dictyonema s.str. have trichomes (filamentose cyanobacterial photobionts) closely enveloped by fungal cells of a jigsaw pattern. In D. sericeum thallus filaments (i.e., individual fibrils) aggregate to form shelf-like structures similar in appearance to polyporoid bracket fungi; basidiocarps develop in irregular patches on the lower side of these shelves. In contrast, fibrils of D. schenkianum grow encrusting their substrate with irregularly to suberect trichomes, occasionally bearing basidiocarps dispersed across the thallus. Two other species in Galapagos show adpressed growth form and are described here as new: Dictyonema pectinatum, which is characterized by large parallel fibrils with paler, papillate tips, and D. galapagoense, characterized by thin trichomes of more squarrish elongate cells. The genus Cyphellostereum is represented by two species: the newly described C. imperfectum and an unnamed Cyphellostereum sp., both phenotypically similar to free-living cyanobacterial filaments. Cyphellostereum imperfectum has narrow photobiont filaments with irregular hyphal sheath leaving interspaces; macroscopically it shows a bluish green thallus with a distinct prothallus. Cyphellostereum sp. has a rather uncommon basidiolichen appearance: thin sctytonematoid fibrils surrounded by straight fungal cells forming shiny tufts. The new combination Cyphellostereum nitidum is also proposed. The ecology and taxonomy of Galapagos basidiolichens is briefly discussed and a key and short descriptions of all species are presented. © Kevin D. Hyde 2011.
    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13225-011-0133-x
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