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  • Bilovitz, P.O./ Spribille, T./ Resl, P./ Hafellner, J. 2018: Helmut Mayrhofer – a tribute on occasion of his 65th birthday [Helmut Mayrhofer – eine Würdigung anlässlich seines 65. Geburtstages]. - Herzogia 31(1): 341–358. [RLL List # 257 / Rec.# 40980]
    Abstract: Helmut Mayrhofer has been contributing to understanding the systematics and diversity of lichenized fungi for over four decades. In this paper introducing a Festschrift on the occasion of his 65th birthday, we review the impact of Helmut Mayrhofer’s scientific work on the systematics of lichenized fungi with special emphasis on the family Physciaceae and highlight his studies of the lichen flora of the Balkan Peninsula, the Alps and other regions. We also present a bibliography of his publications from 1973 to the present.
    – doi:10.13158/heia.31.1.2018.341

    URL: https://bioone.org/journals/Herzogia/volume-31/issue-p1/heia.31.1.2018.341/Helmut-Mayrhofer--A-Tribute-on-the-Occasion-of-His/10.13158/heia.31.1.2018.341.full
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  • Chytrý, M./ Horsák, M./ Syrovátka, V./ Danihelka, J./ Ermakov, N./ German, D.A./ Hájek, M./ Hájek, O./ Hájková, P./ Horsáková, V./ Kočí, M./ Kubešová, S./ Lustyk, P./ Nekola, J.C./ Preislerová, Z./ Resl, P./ Valachovič, M. 2017: Refugial ecosystems in central Asia as indicators of biodiversity change during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. - Ecological Indicators 77: 357-367. [RLL List # 247 / Rec.# 38789]
    Keywords: Alpha diversity/ Bryophyte/ Land snail/ Lichen/ Palaeoecological reconstruction/ Pleistocene–Holocene transition/ Species richness/ Vascular plant
    Abstract: Site-scale species richness (alpha diversity) patterns are well described for many present-day ecosystems, but they are difficult to reconstruct from the fossil record. Very little is thus known about these patterns in Pleistocene full-glacial landscapes and their changes following Holocene climatic amelioration. However, present-day central Asian ecosystems with climatic features and biota similar to those of the full-glacial periods may serve as proxies of alpha diversity variation through both space and time during these periods. We measured alpha diversity of vascular plants, bryophytes, macrolichens and land snails, as well as environmental variables, in 100-m2 plots located in forests and open habitats in the Russian Altai Mountains and their northern foothills. This region contains adjacent areas that possess climatic and biotic features similar to mid-latitude Europe for both the Last Glacial Maximum and contemporaneous Holocene ecosystems. We related alpha diversity to environmental variables using generalized linear models and mapped it from the best-fit models. Climate was identified as the strongest predictor of alpha diversity across all taxa, with temperature being positively correlated to number of species of vascular plants and land snails and negatively correlated to that of bryophytes and macrolichens. Factors important for only some taxa included precipitation, soil pH, percentage cover of tree layer and proportion of grassland areas in the landscape around plots. These results, combined with the high degree of similarity between the current Altai biota and dry-cold Pleistocene ecosystems of Europe and northern Asia, suggest that vascular plant and land snail alpha diversity was low during cold phases of the Pleistocene with a general increase following the Holocene climatic amelioration. The opposite trend probably existed for terricolous bryophytes and macrolichens.
    – doi:10.1016/j.ecolind.2016.12.033

    Notes: "Bryophyte and lichen richness was higher in Pleistocene-like landscapes."
    URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1470160X1630721X
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  • Resl, P. 2017: [Abstract:] From genome to function – functional annotations in our favorite non-model organisms. - Fritschiana 85: 36-37. [RLL List # 251 / Rec.# 39869]
    Abstract: High -throughput sequencing technologies have led to an immense increase of nucleic acid sequence data over the last decades. It is now easier than ever to sequence complete genomes or transcriptomes even for non- model organisms. However the ever -growing amount of data also creates many challenges when it comes to data analyses. One such challenge is how to assign functions to the many genes in newly sequenced genomes to understand links between genotype and phenotype. Traditionally, functional assignments focus on single (or few) genes and involve labori ous laboratory experiments the results of which are interpreted within the metabolic context of single, usually well -studied model organisms. Information on these functionally well -characterized genes forms the core of curated databases of protein functions such as Uni -ProtKB/Swiss -Prot ( T HE U NI P ROT C ONSORTIUM 2017). How ever, despite such joint international efforts, the functional characterization of genes cannot keep up with the speed at which new nucleic acid data are produced, and experimental evidence of gene function still largely stems from model organisms. Often, putative functions of large numbers of genes are therefore assigned compu- tationally, by comparing unknown genes to databases of w ell- characterized genes. Comparing whole- sequence similarity (BLAST best -hit approaches) or the similarity of functional domains or sequence motifs (usually based on Hidden Markov Models) are two possible approaches. A number of specialized databases such as SignalP (to identify signal peptides; N IELSEN 2017), CAZy ( L OMBARD et al. 2014; a database for carbohydrate active enzymes) or KEGG ( K ANEHISA et al . 2017; the encyclopedia of genes and genomes) among many others make it possible to put numbers of genes into a functional context. However , in non- model organisms a large number of genes or metabolic pathways may be underrepresented in the commonly utilized databases and thus remain uncharacterized with most analyses. In this talk, I will present functional annotation results of several lichen- forming fungal genomes with several functional annotation approaches and highlight some of the challenges associated with each of them. I will also introduce the Gene Ontology (GO; A SHBURNER et al . 2000) initiative, which aims to unify the vocabulary of gene product annotations.
    URL: https://static.uni-graz.at/fileadmin/nawi-institute/Botanik/Fritschiana/fritschiana-85/fritschiana-85.pdf
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  • Resl, P./ Fernández-Mendoza, F./ Mayrhofer, H./ Spribille, T. 2018: The evolution of fungal substrate specificity in a widespread group of crustose lichens. - Proceedings of the Royal Society, B 285: 20180640. [RLL List # 256 / Rec.# 40762]
    Abstract: Lichens exhibit varying degrees of specialization with regard to the surfaces they colonize, ranging from substrate generalists to strict substrate specialists. Though long recognized, the causes and consequences of substrate specialization are poorly known. Using a phylogeny of a 150–200 Mya clade of lichen fungi, we asked whether substrate niche is phylogenetically conserved, which substrates are ancestral, whether specialists arise from generalists or vice versa and how specialization affects speciation/extinction processes. We found strong phylogenetic signal for niche conservatism. Specialists evolved into generalists and back again, but transitions from generalism to specialism were more common than the reverse. Our models suggest that for this group of fungi, ‘escape’ from specialization for soil, rock and bark occurred, but specialization for wood foreclosed evolution away from that substrate type. In parallel, speciation models showed positive diversification rates for soil and rock dwellers but not other specialists. Patterns in the studied group suggest that fungal substrate specificity is a key determinant of evolutionary trajectory for the entire lichen symbiosis.
    – doi:10.1098/rspb.2018.0640

    URL: http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/285/1889/20180640
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  • Resl, P./ Mayrhofer, H./ Clayden, S.R./ Spribille, T./ Thor, G./ Tønsberg, T./ Sheard, J.W. 2016: Morphological, chemical and species delimitation analyses provide new taxonomic insights into two groups of Rinodina. - The Lichenologist 48(5): 469-488. [RLL List # 245 / Rec.# 38210]
    Abstract: The genus Rinodina (Physciaceae), with approximately 300 species, has been subject to few phylogenetic studies. Consequently taxonomic hypotheses in Rinodina are largely reliant on phenotypic data, while hypotheses incorporating DNA dependent methods remain to be tested. Here we investigate Rinodina degeliana/R. subparieta and the Rinodina mniaraea group, which previously have not been subjected to comprehensive molecular and phenotypic studies. We conducted detailed morphological, anatomical, chemical, molecular phylogenetic and species delimitation studies including 24 newly sequenced specimens. We propose that Rinodina degeliana and R. subparieta are conspecific and that chemical morphs within the R. mniaraea group should be recognized as distinct species. We also propose the placement of the recently described genus Oxnerella in Physciaceae.
    – doi:10.1017/S0024282916000359

    Notes: Rinodina degeliana Coppins placed in synonymy with R. subparieta (Nyl.) Zahlbr. based on molecular data. Rinodina mniarea s.l. revised with molecular data to comprise: R. cinnamomea (Th.Fr.) Räsänen, R. mniaraea (Ach.) Körb. and R. mniaraeiza (Nyl.) Arnold. Lectotypified: Lecanora turfacea var. biatorina Nyl., Lecidea mniaroeoides Nyl., Parmelia hookeri sensu Fr. non Lichen hookeri Borr. ex Sm., R. turfacea var. nuda Körb.
    URL: https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/lichenologist/article/morphological-chemical-and-species-delimitation-analyses-provide-new-taxonomic-insights-into-two-groups-of-rinodina/69908449F78C999A888FEDB6AEDF1BE8
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  • Resl, P./ Schneider, K./ Westberg, M./ Printzen, C./ Palice, Z./ Thor, G./ Fryday, A./ Mayrhofer, H./ Spribille, T. 2015: Diagnostics for a troubled backbone: testing topological hypotheses of trapelioid lichenized fungi in a large-scale phylogeny of Ostropomycetidae (Lecanoromycetes). - Fungal Diversity 73: 239-258. [RLL List # 240 / Rec.# 36306]
    Keywords: Ascomycota/ Fungi/ Lambiella/ Lecanoromycetes/ Ostropomycetidae/ Parainoa/ Paraphyly/ SOWH test/ Taxon sampling
    Abstract: Trapelioid fungi constitute a widespread group of mostly crust-forming lichen mycobionts that are key to understanding the early evolutionary splits in the Ostropomycetidae, the second-most species-rich subclass of lichenized Ascomycota. The uncertain phylogenetic resolution of the approximately 170 species referred to this group contributes to a poorly resolved backbone for the entire subclass. Based on a data set including 657 newly generated sequences from four ribosomal and four protein-coding gene loci, we tested a series of a priori and new evolutionary hypotheses regarding the relationships of trapelioid clades within Ostropomycetidae. We found strong support for a monophyletic group of nine core trapelioid genera but no statistical support to reject the long-standing hypothesis that trapelioid genera are sister to Baeomycetaceae or Hymeneliaceae. However, we can reject a sister group relationship to Ostropales with high confidence. Our data also shed light on several long-standing questions, recovering Anamylopsoraceae nested within Baeomycetaceae, elucidating two major monophyletic groups within trapelioids (recognized here as Trapeliaceae and Xylographaceae), and rejecting the monophyly of the genus Rimularia. We transfer eleven species of the latter genus to Lambiella and describe the genus Parainoa to accommodate a previously misunderstood species of Trapeliopsis. Past phylogenetic studies in Ostropomycetidae have invoked “divergence order” for drawing taxonomic conclusions on higher level taxa. Our data show that if backbone support is lacking, contrasting solutions may be recovered with different or added data. We accordingly urge caution in concluding evolutionary relationships from unresolved phylogenies.
    – doi:10.1007/s13225-015-0332-y

    Genera/Families: Lithographa/Ptychographa/Xylographa/Lambiella/Rimularia/Placynthiella/Trapeliopsis/Trapelia/Placopsis/Schaereriaceae/Schaereria/Loxospora/Sarrameana/Anzina/Protothelenella/Anamylopsora/Baeomycetaceae/Ainoa/Trapeliaceae/Xylographaceae/Amylora/Coppinsia/Cameronia/
    Notes: New: Parainoa Resl & T. Sprib., Parainoa subconcolor (Anzi) Resl & T. Sprib. (≡ Biatora subconcolor Anzi), Lambiella caeca (J. Lowe) Resl & T. Sprib. (≡ Lecidea caeca J. Lowe, L.furvella(Nyl. ex Mudd) M. Westb. & Resl (≡ Lecidea furvella Nyl. ex Mudd), L. fuscosora(Muhr & Tønsberg) M. Westb. & Resl (≡ Rimularia fuscosora Muhr & Tønsberg), L. globulosa (Coppins) M. Westb. & Resl (≡ Rimularia globulosa Coppins), L. gyrizans (Nyl.) M. Westb. & Resl (≡ Lecidea gyrizans Nyl.), L. hepaticola (Kantvilas & Coppins) Resl & T. Sprib. (≡ Rimularia hepaticola Kantvilas & Coppins), L.impavida (Th.Fr.) M. Westb. & Resl (≡ Lecidea impavida Th.Fr.), L. sphacelata (Th.Fr.) M. Westb. & Resl (≡ Lecidea sphacelata Th.Fr.). New synonyms: Trapeliopsis aeneofusca (Flörke ex Flot.) Coppins & P. James is placed in synonymy with T. gelatinosa (Flörke) Coppins & P. James; Anamylopsoraceae Lumbsch & Lunke, Lithographaceae Poelt nom. inval., Rimulariaceae Hafellner, and Xylographaceae Tuck., are treated as synonyms of Baeomycetaceae Dumort.
    URL: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs13225-015-0332-y
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  • Resl, P./ Schultz, M. 2017: Taxonomische und nomenklatorische Neuerungen Flechten - Zweite Folge. - Herzogiella 4: 25-31. [RLL List # 263 / Rec.# 42455]
    Abstract: In der zweiten Folge die taxonomischen Änderungen bei den Flechten betreffend, weisen wir wieder auf Namensänderungen und Neubeschreibungen hin, sofern sie die Flora Mitteleuropas betreffen. Wir haben uns bemüht, einen möglichst vollständigen Überblick über nomenklatorische Änderungen für das Jahr 2016 zu geben. Wir ergänzen auch einige wenige Arbeiten aus den Jahren 2013-2015, die wir übersehen hatten. Trotzdem ist uns bewusst, dass uns auch dieses Mal Namensänderungen durch die Finger gerutscht sein werden und diese Auflistung daher als unvollständig anzusehen ist.
    Notes: In German.
    URL: https://blam-bl.de/images/Herzogiella/Herzogiella_2017/Herzogiella_2017_25bis31_Resl-Schulz.pdf
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  • Schneider, K./ Resl, P./ Spribille, T. 2016: Escape from the cryptic species trap: lichen evolution on both sides of a cyanobacterial acquisition event. - Molecular Ecology 25(14): 3453-3468. [RLL List # 243 / Rec.# 37506]
    Keywords: Apothecia/ Fungi/ nutrient flows/ sexual reproduction/ speciation/ symbiosis
    Abstract: Large, architecturally complex lichen symbioses arose only a few times in evolution, increasing thallus size by orders of magnitude over those from which they evolved. The innovations that enabled symbiotic assemblages to acquire and maintain large sizes are unknown. We mapped morphometric data against an eight-locus fungal phylogeny across one of the best-sampled thallus size transition events, the origins of the Placopsis lichen symbiosis, and used a phylogenetic comparative framework to explore the role of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria in size differences. Thallus thickness increased by >150% and fruiting body core volume increased nine-fold on average after acquisition of cyanobacteria. Volume of cyanobacteria-containing structures (cephalodia), once acquired, correlates with thallus thickness in both phylogenetic generalized least squares (PGLS) and phylogenetic generalized linear mixed-effects (pGLMM) analyses. Our results suggest that the availability of nitrogen is an important factor in the formation of large thalli. Cyanobacterial symbiosis appears to have enabled lichens to overcome size constraints in oligotrophic environments such as acidic, rain-washed rock surfaces. In the case of the Placopsis fungal symbiont this has led to an adaptive radiation of more than 60 recognized species from related crustose members of the genus Trapelia. Our data suggest that pre-cyanobacterial symbiotic lineages were constrained to forming a narrow range of phenotypes, so-called cryptic species, leading systematists until now to recognize only six of the 18 species clusters we identified in Trapelia.
    – doi:10.1111/mec.13636

    URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/mec.13636/full
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  • Schneider, K./ Resl, P./ Westberg, M./ Spribille, T. 2015: A new, highly effective primer pair to exclude algae when amplifying nuclear large ribosomal subunit (LSU) DNA from lichens . - The Lichenologist 47(4): 269-275. [RLL List # 240 / Rec.# 36521]
    – doi:10.1017/S002428291500016X

    URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S002428291500016X
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  • Schultz, M./ Resl, P. 2016: Taxonomische und nomenklatorische Neuerungen Flechten - Erste Folge. - Herzogiella 3: 21-28. [RLL List # 263 / Rec.# 42460]
    Abstract: Für die Bryologie, bereits in der letzten Ausgabe eingeführt, möchten wir hier eine ähn-liche Rubrik zur Taxonomie der Flechten starten. Wir behandeln Neubeschreibungen und Namensänderungen, sofern sie die Flora Mitteleuropas betreffen und im vergangenen Jahr publiziert wurden. Weil seit Erscheinen der Flora von Deutschland (WIRTH et al. 2013) einige umfassendere Bearbeitungen verschiedener Flechtengruppen vorge-nommen wurden, weisen wir diesmal auch auf taxonomisch relevante Literatur vor 2015 hin, sofern diese mitteleuropäische Arten berücksichtigt. Es ist oftmals schwer, den Überblick über Namensänderungen und Neubeschreibungen zu behalten und so kann auch die angefügte Liste nur als unvollständig gelten. Wir möchten deshalb auch die Leserschaft bitten, uns in Zukunft neue Publikationen mit taxonomischen Änderungen zukommen zu lassen, damit sie an dieser Stelle Beachtung finden können.
    Notes: In German.
    URL: https://blam-bl.de/images/Herzogiella/Herzogiella_2016/Herzogiella_2016_21bis26_Schulz_Resl.pdf
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  • Spribille, T./ Resl, P./ Ahti, T./ Pérez-Ortega, S./ Tønsberg, T./ Mayrhofer, H./ Lumbsch, H.T. 2014: Molecular systematics of the wood-inhabiting, lichen-forming genus Xylographa (Baeomycetales, Ostropomycetidae) with eight new species. - Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 37(1): 1-87. [RLL List #  / Rec.# 37264]
    Abstract: The ascomycete genus Xylographa includes some of the most abundant species of wood-inhabiting lichenized fungi in boreal and temperate regions. It has never been monographed and little is known of its species diversity and evolutionary relationships. Based on a morphological and secondary metabolite-based assessment of material from North and South America, Europe and Asia, we generated a three-locus phylogeny based on sequences of the internal transcribed spacer, 28S nuclear rDNA and mitochondrial small subunit rDNA. We analyzed the data within the context of putatively related genera in the order Baeomycetales. Xylographa is a strongly supported monophyletic group closely related to Lithographa and Ptychographa, as well as rock-dwelling and lichenicolous species of Rimularia s.lat. The evolution of linearized ascomata in Xylographa appears to have enabled ascomata to grow laterally, and patterns of lateral growth are diagnostic. We recognize twenty species in Xylographa and provide a thorough revision of nomenclature. The following eight species are new: Xylographa bjoerkii T. Sprib., X. constricta T. Sprib., X. erratica T. Sprib., X. lagoi T. Sprib. & Pérez-Ortega, X. schofieldii T. Sprib., X. septentrionalis T. Sprib., X. stenospora T. Sprib. & Resl and X. vermicularis T. Sprib. The combinations Lambiella insularis (Nyl.) T. Sprib. and Xylographa carneopallida (Räsänen) T. Sprib. are newly proposed. Xylographa constricta from southern South America represents the first known case of secondary de-lichenization in the Baeomycetales. Xylographa parallela s.str. is confirmed as bipolar on the basis of sequenced collections from both southern Chile and the northern Hemisphere.
    Notes: New: Xylographa bjoerkii T. Sprib. (from Canada and U.S.A.), Xylographa carneopallida (Räsänen) T. Sprib. (≡ Xylographa rubescens var. carneopallida Räsänen), Xylographa constricta T. Sprib. (from Chile), Xylographa erratica T. Sprib. (from Canada, Finland, Russia and U.S.A), Xylographa lagoi T. Sprib. & Pérez-Ortega (from Spain), Xylographa schofieldii T. Sprib. (from Canada and U.S.A.), Xylographa septentrionalis T. Sprib. (from Canada and U.S.A.), Xylographa stenospora T. Sprib. & Resl (from Canada and U.S.A.), Xylographa vermicularis T. Sprib. (from Japan, Russia and U.S.A.). Lectotypified: Lichen parallelus Ach., Lecidea trunciseda Th. Fr., Stictis linearis Cooke & Ellis, Xylographa arctica Vain., Xylographa arctica var. subhians Vain., Xylographa disseminata Willey, Xylographa hians Tuck., Xylographa laricicola Nyl., Xylographa opegraphella Nyl., Xylographa parallela var. difformis Vain., Xylographa parallela var. pallens Nyl., Xylographa parallela var. sessitana Bagl., Xylographa rubescens Räsänen. Neotypified: Xylographa rubescens var. degelii Räsänen. Xylographa pruinodisca B.D. Ryan & T.H. Nash placed in synonymy with X. difformis, X. crassithallia B.D. Ryan & T.H. Nash placed in synonymy with X. difformis with question.
    URL:
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  • Spribille, T./ Tuovinen, V./ Resl, P./ Vanderpool, D./ Wolinski, H./ Aime, M.C./ Schneider, K./ Stabentheiner, E./ Toome-Heller, M./ Thor, G./ Mayrhofer, H./ Johannesson, H./ McCutcheon, J.P. 2016: Basidiomycete yeasts in the cortex of ascomycete macrolichens. - Science 353(6298): 488-492. [RLL List # 244 / Rec.# 37823]
    Abstract: For over 140 years, lichens have been regarded as a symbiosis between a single fungus, usually an ascomycete, and a photosynthesizing partner. Other fungi have long been known to occur as occasional parasites or endophytes, but the one lichen–one fungus paradigm has seldom been questioned. Here we show that many common lichens are composed of the known ascomycete, the photosynthesizing partner, and, unexpectedly, specific basidiomycete yeasts. These yeasts are embedded in the cortex, and their abundance correlates with previously unexplained variations in phenotype. Basidiomycete lineages maintain close associations with specific lichen species over large geographical distances and have been found on six continents. The structurally important lichen cortex, long treated as a zone of differentiated ascomycete cells, appears to consistently contain two unrelated fungi.
    – doi:10.1126/science.aaf8287

    URL: http://science.sciencemag.org/content/early/2016/07/20/science.aaf8287
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    Number of hits shown/total: 12/12.
    Number of records in database: 51936.
    Current date: 2021.10.16.OK